Somewhere in the middle of the first month, the first veterinary visit should be scheduled at, say, 10-weeks of age and your veterinarian will advise you about deworming and vaccination schedules. He or she will also perform a thorough physical examination of your pup, checking for obvious physical abnormalities and health issues. Your veterinarian may advise you to keep your puppy inside and away from people and other dogs until vaccination is complete but this advice should not be taken too literally. Bad behavior causes almost half of all newborn puppies to be relinquished before they are 2-years of age and many times their surrender amounts to a death sentence. Preventing behavior problems is as important as vaccination and requires active socialization and desensitization to anything the pup may encounter in later life if it is to grow up confident, accepting, and fearless.
Socialization can be accomplished by arranging 'puppy parties' in which strangers [to the dog] are invited around to the house to play with the pup and entertain it in a pleasant way [remember not to overwhelm the youngster]. Likewise, the pup can be introduced to other dogs in its home or on its property as long as the dogs are in good health and properly vaccinated. Another prerequisite is that the visiting dogs are calm and composed and are not allowed to intimidate or threaten the pup.
All areas of the pup's body should be handled on a daily basis: eyes, ears, mouth, feet, tail, and "undercarriage." The pup should be made used to being handled and should grow up to be accepting of these physical interventions. You will thank yourself later and your vet will thank you, too.
In addition, the pup should be desensitized to various sights, sounds, and even smells that it may encounter later in life. Sometimes it helps to make a tape recording of potentially frightening sounds like thunder, fire alarms, vacuum cleaners, so that they can be played at low but increasing volumes while the puppy is entertained. Also, the pup can be desensitized to the car by introducing it to car travel by introducing it to car travel in stages. The pup can be brought to the reception area of the veterinarian's office for petting and food treats and can be fed next to the vacuum cleaner so that it is not later perceived as a fire-breathing dragon. Desensitization need only be limited by your imagination.
All this time it is a good idea to begin associating words with actions and objects so that the pup is building a vocabulary. You don't need to wait until puppy training classes until you begin training a new pup. Take advantage of the sponge-like capacity of the new pup's brain by assisting it to sit, to lie down, encouraging it to wait for stay and rewarding success. No punishment should be used and there should be no yelling, no hitting, and certainly no lead jerking. The opposite of reward is not punishment, it is no reward.
The pup should be getting used to wearing a collar and trailing a lead around, perhaps with a person attached to the other end. Now the owner can try calling the pup to them and taking a few steps away as the pup is obliged to follow. It helps to get pups to come if you crouch down on one knee, act happy, call them to you by name and praise them before they've even started to come. If necessary, gentle tension can be used to reel in a hesitant pup but there must always be a 'pot of gold' at the end of that rainbow.
The Second and Third Months after Adoption
By this time, the pup should be 3 to 4-months of age. Early in this period, vaccinations should have taken effect and the pup should be worm-free and healthy. It should also be capable of going for quite reasonable lengths of time before pit stops. By the end of this period, at 5-months of age, the pup should probably be able to hold its urine for 6 hours at a time. This aspect of training should be now in your rear-view mirror.
At-home training should be continued throughout this period, though it is highly recommended to enlist the services of a trainer and to take your pup to training class early in this window of time. Puppy classes provide entertainment for the pup as well as education and also permit further socialization with members of its own species. Good trainers will ensure that nothing bad happens to the pup during classes, as negative experiences at this time will have long lasting effects. Useful exercises, like walking on a loose leash, sit/stay, down/stay, come [from a distance], and leave it, can be practiced and honed.
I believe that all puppies should be introduced to a head halter at this stage because it is such a valuable tool for controlling a dog later in life. At this stage, pups can learn that head halters are part of life which they should be to give the owner control of their dog and facilitate the dog's understanding of the owner's wishes and directions. During this entire period and beyond the puppy should be exercised regularly, fed regularly, and played with regularly. They should be acclimated to their crates [which should always be available to them] and should not be left alone unattended for long hours. Toward the end of this two-month period, the frequency of meal feeding can be dropped to twice a day.
The Five-Month Old Pup
At this stage, pups are beginning to 'feel their oats' and can become quite rambunctious and perhaps mouthy. They may also start to engage in destructive behavior as teething begins. Surplus energy should be channeled properly through regular play and exercise. Rough play is not appropriate as it will make pups more aggressive. Nipping should be 'nipped in the bud' by loudly exclaiming a word such as 'ouch' and freezing once the pup lays its needle teeth on you with too much pressure. This will teach the pup "bite inhibition," an invaluable lesson in life. Chewing is inevitable and should be properly directed, not corrected. An assortment of chew toys should be available to the pup and should be substituted for any inappropriate chewing that is witnessed.
Neutering of dogs not intended for breeding is normally carried out after the 5th month of life. While some folk (especially men) may feel a bit squeamish about this practice, it is for the pet's good. Unneutered pets exhibit a number of behaviors that owners may find undesirable. They are also prone to certain health problems that neutered pets cannot get. Finally, neutering is necessary as a birth control measure to prevent unwanted pups. As the Nike motto proclaims, Just Do It!
Walks in the park will be a joy for the pup and the owner at this time and pleasant exchanges with strangers and unfamiliar dogs can be organized to complete the education process. The only problem is that you can't control the whole wide world and unpredictable things will happen, but with a head halter and your strong leadership, direction, and protection, the (now) young dog can learn that all is well when you're there - and that's a very important lesson. Dogs need you to be their friends and they love to have fun but you also need to be a strong dog parent. Dogs need strong leaders or they run amok and that's bad news for you and bad news for the dog. In the fifth month of life and beyond, it's good to remember that you, the dog's owner, should always be perceived as fun, fair, but firm [the three F's]. With such a concept in mind, the future should be bright for you and your dog and you should be ready to spend many happy years together. Beginnings are important and your early efforts, though time-consuming and patience-testing, will be amply rewarded.