Abdominal distension is an abnormal enlargement of the abdominal cavity. This term is usually reserved for abdominal enlargement due to causes other than simple obesity. For information on obesity, please read Obesity in Cats
One cause of abdominal distension is fluid accumulation. The types of fluids include blood from internal hemorrhage (bleeding)
, urine from a tear in the urinary tract
, exudate (cellular fluids similar to pus) from infection as with feline infectious peritonitis
, and transudates (clear fluids)
, that are leaked from vessels.
Another cause of abdominal distension is enlargement of any abdominal organ including the liver, kidneys, or spleen. Distension of the stomach with air ("bloating") or fluid or distension of the uterus (womb) during pregnancy
, can result in abdominal distension.
Tumors within the abdomen can also cause abdominal distension. The tumor may be malignant (an invasive cancer), or benign, (abnormal but not spreading to other tissues). Tumors can involve any of the abdominal organs, including the intestines or lymph nodes (glands).
Loss of abdominal muscle tone, with or without significant weight gain, also can lead to abdominal distension.
Pressure from the abdomen pushing into the chest may make breathing more difficult and pressure within the abdomen may decrease the appetite. NOTE: It is important to recognize abdominal distension because it can be a symptom of potentially life-threatening diseases and should be investigated thoroughly.What to Watch For Sudden abdominal enlargement. Treat this as a medical emergency especially if associated with vomiting, wretching, sudden weakness or collapse.
Distension that occurs over days to weeks. This requires prompt medical attention.
Slowly developing abdominal enlargement. This should be investigated if it is accompanied by loss of muscle or fat in other regions of the body, decreased appetite, vomiting or diarrhea, changes in urinary or bowel habits, or a diminished activity level.
Veterinary care should include diagnostic tests to determine the cause of the abdominal distension and provide information on which to base recommendations for treatment. Diagnostic tests that your veterinarian may wish to perform include:
A complete medical history and physical examination.
Abdominal radiographs (X-rays)
Abdominocentesis (the removal of fluid from the abdomen using a needle)
Chest Radiograph (X-ray)
Blood tests such as biochemistry analysis, a complete blood count (CBC), and a PCV (packed cell volume) and TP (total protein)
Other specific tests, like liver function, evaluation for feline coronavirus exposure or biopsy of affected tissues or organs
Treatment for abdominal distension is dependent upon the underlying cause (diagnosis). Treatment may include:
Abdominocentesis or drainage of fluid from the abdomen. If fluid distension causes pressure on the diaphragm (the muscular membrane separating the chest and abdomen) and impairs breathing, fluid may be drained from the abdomen with a needle. Fluid accumulation that does not interfere with breathing is not routinely removed.
Diuretic administration. Certain types of fluid accumulation can be lessened with diuretic administration, which increases urination.
Surgery. Some causes of abdominal enlargement, including ruptured abdominal organs, must be treated surgically.
If you notice abdominal distension and your cat is acting sick, call your veterinarian. If abdominal distension is associated with vomiting, wretching or collapse, call your veterinarian immediately. These symptoms can be life-threatening.