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Fracture of the Pelvis in Cats

By: Dr. David Diamond

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Of all of the fractures seen in small animal hospitals, fractures of the pelvis are the most common. Motor vehicle trauma is the most frequent cause of pelvic fractures. These animals tend to be young, non-neutered males who roam away from home and get hit by a car. Cats of both sexes and of any age are susceptible to this type of trauma if not kept indoors.

The left and right halves of the pelvis are actually several bones that fuse together as the animal matures. Each half is composed of the ilium, ischium and pubis. Both halves are then fused together in the middle to create a boxlike shape. Because of this configuration, trauma to the whole box usually results in many fractures at once. The pelvis forms a "socket" (acetabulum) of the hip joint and connects to the spine through the sacroiliac joints. These joints frequently become involved (fractured acetabulum or sacroiliac luxation) with trauma to the pelvis and may complicate the method of treatment and the animal's prognosis.

Each case of pelvic fractures needs to be evaluated in its entirety, including the severity of the fractures, age of the cat, experience of the surgeon, and financial concerns of the owner, to determine the most appropriate and best form of treatment.

Inappropriate case management, inadequate surgical stabilization, or poor aftercare can lead to complications such as non-unions (fractures that will not heal), malunions (fractures that heal in an abnormal direction or orientation). These can result in compromise of the width of the pelvic canal, osteomyelitis (bone infection), arthritis of the hip joint, or a non-functional leg.

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