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Diabetes in Dogs

By: Dr. Leah Cohn

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Treatment for diabetes may include one or more of the following:

  • Insulin injections are the mainstay of treatment. Essentially all dogs with DM will require one or two daily injections of insulin to replace absent or ineffective naturally occurring insulin. Most dogs require twice daily injections. These should be given as close to 12 hours a part as possible.

    Because insulin is a hormone that is easily inactivated, it must be given by injection. These injections are given just under the skin using a small needle and syringe. Most pets become readily accustomed to the treatments, and despite initial trepidation, most owners can easily learn to give the injections without much objection from the pet. Type I DM, due to destruction of the pancreatic cells that produce insulin, requires life-long insulin therapy.

    On the other hand, Type II DM, in which the tissues are merely resistant to the effects of insulin, can sometimes be controlled through weight management, diet changes and/or pills to lower blood glucose. Most dogs do not respond to this treatment approach as most dogs are type I diabetics.

    Patients with uncomplicated diabetes are generally managed on an outpatient basis, but those experiencing complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis will require initial in-hospital stabilization.

    Insulin comes from several sources and in many formulations. The most commonly available source is recombinant insulin, produced by genetically engineered bacteria to mimic human insulin. Other sources are from processed beef or pork pancreas.

    Insulin formulations vary in the time they require to reach peak action and duration of action. Commonly prescribed formulations include NPH (isophane), lente, and protamine zinc (PZI). Another formulation, "regular" insulin, is very short acting and is primarily used in the hospital setting for complicated diabetics.

  • Diet. Proper weight management aids in control of DM. Obesity causes tissues to be resistant to the effects of insulin, while animals that are too thin do not have any energy reserves. Maintaining an optimum weight can help both type I and type II diabetics.

    A high fiber diet and regular exercise can aid in control of DM. Fiber slows the absorption of carbohydrates, including sugar, from the intestine. Exercise helps improve the utilization of insulin by the tissues.

    Ideally, meals should be divided into twice daily servings and offered prior to the insulin injections.

  • Ovariohysterectomy (spaying) is indicated in female diabetic animals. When animals come into heat (estrus), the hormonal changes alter insulin and glucose metabolism.

  • Drug therapy. Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat infectious complications, particularly urinary tract infections or oral (gum) infections. Certain drugs, including steroids, should be avoided in diabetics. Steroids are often used to treat skin conditions, but should be avoided in diabetics.

    Animals with complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis will require in-hospital therapy, including insulin administration with frequent dose adjustment, intravenous fluids, administration of electrolytes (blood chemicals) and antibiotics.

    Be prepared for frequent adjustments to therapy early in the course of treatment. Veterinarians prefer to start with a low dose of insulin initially and adjust upwards slowly to avoid overdose.

    Too much insulin can be worse than not enough; insulin overdose can cause low blood glucose. When blood glucose is too low, the brain does not get adequate energy. The result can be disorientation, lethargy, seizures, coma or even death. If you notice disorientation in your alert diabetic dog, offer food immediately. If the dog is unconscious, you can apply a sugary solution like Karo® syrup to the gums. In either case, call your veterinarian immediately.

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