Dogs have a much better time of it these days. No longer do they have to while away hours in the doghouse outside; they are more often kept indoors and treated like family members. But, although we may have changed our attitude toward our pets, we have changed our lifestyles, too, and we are now less available.
Frequently both parents work away from home and the kids are at school. So, although dogs no longer have to battle the elements outside, they do have to contend with being home alone during the day, sometimes all day, with little to occupy their time. From the owner's point of view, the home may be ideal: plush rugs, elegant furniture, and chic décor, but dogs do not appreciate such environmental refinement and would by far prefer to be socializing with people or other dogs, or chasing a blowing leaf outside. Like children, dogs have an agenda that is subtly different from that of adult humans, and have likes and dislikes that can be diametrically opposed.
Some "Type-B" personality dogs may nap during their owners' absence, arising lazily with a yawn and stretch upon their return. Other more compulsive "Type-A" dogs may suffer extreme boredom and stress during their owners' absence. The telltale signs are easy to see: the garbage can contents may be strewn across the floor, cupboard doors opened, food stores raided, paper or pillows shredded, and so on. While there is a well-known syndrome of separation anxiety, the bored dog scenario is distinct from separation anxiety and represents the sometimes ingenious attempts of a dog that is "bored out of his mind" to find something time-filling to do.
In attempting to distinguish between a dog with separation anxiety and one that is just bored you should ask yourself the following questions: Did you acquire your dog from a shelter or pound?
Has he had multiple owners?
Did you get him when he was over three months of age?
Is he a "Velcro dog"? (Does he follow you around constantly?)
Does he appear anxious as you prepare to depart?
Does he whine or bark after you have left?
Does he urinate or defecate ONLY in your absence?
Does he destroy things ONLY in your absence?
Does he refuse to eat when you are away?
Does he greet you over-exuberantly when you return?
A score of five or more "yes" answers is highly suggestive of separation anxiety. If any doubt exists as to the precise cause of the dog's unrest or agitation when you are away, a video recording will serve as the tiebreaker. Dogs with separation anxiety are visibly anxious, pacing, panting, and whining or barking, whereas dogs that are bored simply wander around searching for something to do. Also, they may get up and down frequently and act in an unsettled, restless way as if experiencing a dilemma (which they probably are).
The key to managing an otherwise bored dog is "Environmental Enrichment" (the big E's). Below is a list of measures that owners can employ to reduce their dog's tedium during long stints home alone.
1. Get a dog for your dog. Although getting a dog for your dog rarely works to improve separation anxiety, this can help your bored dog – as long as the two dogs get along. However, introducing an overly dominant, oppressive dog may have exactly the opposite effect. If in doubt, ask an expert to help you select the right dog for your dog and lean toward a younger individual and one of even temperament.
2. Hire a dog walker. Most dogs really appreciate the lunchtime visits of a dog walker who provides a much welcome respite in the middle of an otherwise long day of nothing to do.
3. Doggy day care. One better than a dog walker is doggy day care. The problem here is that it is expensive and thus probably only available to yuppie puppies. Check out the day care center thoroughly as you would kiddy day care for young children.
4. Crates. Providing a dog with a crate gives him a room of his own, a place in which to hang out and to get away from it all. If you don't provide a crate, most dogs will improvise, finding solitude under a table or bed or behind a couch. Crates should never be used for punishment or as a substitute for appropriate management. I think it is rarely, if ever, appropriate to shut a dog in his crate all day while you are away but an open crate is another matter.
5. Food puzzles/sustained release food. Most people have developed the habit of feeding their dog before they leave in the morning. The dog wolfs down his food and then has nothing to do all day. It may be more appropriate to feed the dog as you leave and/or to arrange for the food to be discovered by the dog after you have left.
6. Radio/TV. Many people already leave a radio or television on for their dog when they leave. The "white noise effect" does seem to have a soothing effect and thus may have some redeeming features. Think of it this way; any lilting/melodic sound (not "heavy metal") or even just background gibberish is probably better than the sound of silence or a clock ticking on the mantelpiece. Most animals seem to prefer seeing images of other animals or nature programs.
7. Room with a view. Some of the best visual enrichment that a "home alone dog" can enjoy is the "real TV" experience of observing the world outside through a window with a panoramic view.
8. Transitional object. Some people report that leaving out an article of their apparel comforts their dog. The dog can then snuggle up to the item in their absence and be reminded of better times.
9. Rotation of toys. Well-meaning owners leave toys out for their dog to play with in their absence. This is a valuable enrichment strategy but will not work well unless the toys are interesting and novel. Toys that move or are good to chew are apparently the most fun and the way to keep them riveting is to rotate them so that they don't lose their appeal.
10. "A tired dog is a good dog." You could also say, a happy dog. Exercise generates serotonin in the brain and thus has a calming and mood-stabilizing effect on man and beast. A dog that has had a good run for 20 to 30 minutes before the owner departs will be less anxious, more composed, and prepared for a little R & R in the form of a good nap.
11. Dog door/fenced in yard (except perhaps in the big city). Another idea, if you live in the suburbs and have a reasonable-sized fenced in yard, is to fit a dog door to allow your dog to come and go at will.
There are many ways that we can try and make our dogs' lives more interesting and engaging during our absence. Some dogs will fare quite well with the application of just a few of the measures listed above. Nevertheless, the wisdom of getting a highly social pet like a dog must be considered if you know in advance that you will be required to be apart from that pet for many hours each day. It is preferable to choose the right time in your life to acquire a dog – a time when you are in a position to spend sufficient quality time with your pet and not wind up a latchkey parent. For those of you for whom this advice is too late, take heart, adopt the some of the big E's, and look out for your old pal.