What Is the Lymphatic System?
The lymphatic system is a complex and vital system primarily responsible for the transportation of lymph and for participating in many immune functions of the body. The lymphatic system occurs throughout the body and is made up of small glands called lymph nodes, which are connected to each other by a series of vessels called lymphatics. Other important organs in this system include the bone marrow, spleen, thymus and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which is the lymphatic tissue associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.Where Is the Lymphatic System?
The lymphatic system is located throughout the body and has many components: Lymph nodes or glands are small round, oval or bean-shaped structures that are located at various locations throughout the body. The lymph nodes are connected to each other by a series of vessels called lymphatics, which carry lymph from place to place. Some lymph nodes lie along the surface of the body (along the neck, under the arms, in the groin, behind the knees), while others lie deep within the body (chest and abdomen).
The bone marrow lies within the central shaft of bones, primarily the long bones of the body.
The spleen is located near the stomach in the left forward part of the abdomen.
The thymus is located in the front part of the chest cavity, between the trachea (windpipe) and the ribs.
The GALT is made up of lymph tissue scattered throughout the GI tract including the tonsils and intestines.
What Is the General Structure of the Lymphatic System?
The lymphatic system is composed of a network of lymph vessels referred to as lymphatics, as well as certain organs and tissues, including the lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, thymus and GALT.
Lymph is a milky fluid that flows throughout the system. It contains proteins, fats and a type of white blood cell called lymphocytes. Lymph is collected from the fluid of various tissues and eventually is returned to the blood circulatory system. The lymphatic system provides another route by which fluid can flow from distant tissues back into the blood stream, one that is separate from capillaries and veins. It also carries proteins and other substances away from tissues that cannot be removed or transported directly into the blood system.
Similar to the blood circulatory system, the lymphatic system is comprised of fine channels that lie adjacent to the blood vessels. These lymphatic vessels eventually merge into a rather large vessel called the thoracic duct. As the lymph is carried from distant parts of the body, it is collected into larger and larger vessels until the vessels all converge in the chest and deposit the lymph in the large vein (cranial vena cava) leading to the right atrium of the heart.
The lymph moves through the lymphatic vessels toward the lymph nodes. The lymph nodes lie at varying points along the course of the lymphatic chain and can form clusters in some areas of the body. Lymph nodes have a dense fibrous outer coating, called a capsule and are filled with white blood cells and spaces containing lymph fluid. Several types of white blood cells predominate in the lymph nodes, particularly lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages.
The bone marrow consists of connective tissue, the cells of which form a delicate meshwork within the marrow cavity. The marrow cavity is permeated by numerous thin-walled blood vessels. Within the spaces of this tissue, the immature and adult stages of different blood cells exist.
The spleen is the largest body of lymphatic system. It is a dark red organ that is supplied with numerous blood vessels. A tough capsule of fibrous tissue covers the spleen. The splenic "pedicle" is located along one surface and serves as the entry and exit point for blood vessels. The internal structure of the spleen consists of:
Red pulp – areas for red blood cell storage and for the trapping of immune proteins called antigens
White pulp – areas of special immune response cells called lymphocytes and reticuloendothelial cells
Marginal zone – an area that separates the white and red pulp and helps to filter the blood
The thymus is an organ that varies in size depending on the age of the individual. It is largest in young animals and shrinks to a very small size in the adult.
GALT is present throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Peyer's Patches are aggregates of lymphoid tissue found in the small intestine and are a type of GALT.
What Are the Functions of the Lymphatic System?
The lymphatic system has several very important functions: absorbing excess fluid from tissues and returning it to the bloodstream, absorbing fat from the gastrointestinal tract, transporting white blood cells and certain proteins, and playing an important role in the immune system, particularly in the production of antibodies (immunoglobulins).
The lymphatic system filters and removes debris from the tissues of the body. Cells produce proteins and waste products. The lymph absorbs these products and carries them away from the tissues because they are often too large to be effectively absorbed and removed by the bloodstream.
The lymphatic system, functioning along with the circulatory system, absorbs nutrients from the small intestines. A large portion of digested fats is absorbed via the lymphatic capillaries. Fat absorbed from the small intestinal lymphatic capillaries or lacteals is termed chyle.
The lymph nodes filter out cellular waste products and foreign material in the lymph fluid, including potentially dangerous infectious particles like bacteria and viruses. They trap material received from the lymphatic vessels and provide a site for white blood cells to mount an immune response. They act as a barrier against the entrance of these foreign substances into the bloodstream.
The chief function of the bone marrow is the production of various red and white blood cells.
The spleen is an integral part of the immune system and it filters abnormal cells from the blood. It also helps make and store blood cells.
The thymus is a very important part of the immune system in the newborn. It is the site where the earliest immune cells are made and where immune functions take place in the young animal.
GALT's main function is to provide immunologic defenses at the surface of certain areas of the body, such as the tonsil and the lining of the intestinal tract. These are areas where the body is often exposed to foreign materials and infectious agents.