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Tylosin (Tylan®)

By: Dr. Nicholas Dodman

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Overview

  • Tylosin is an antibiotic categorized further as a "macrolide". Other members of this class of antibiotics include erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, spiramycin, and dirithromycin.
  • Tylosin is produced naturally by an actinomycete, Streptomyces fradiae. It is bacteriostatic, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis through inhibition of the 50S ribosome and is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms, Mycoplasma, vibrios, and spirochetes.
  • Tylosin is used as a food additive growth promoter in food animals. It is also used as an antibiotic to treat infections in farm animals.
  • In small animals, tylosin has been used for its anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties to treat colitis. It is also used to treat infections of other organ systems, notably the respiratory tract and skin.
  • Tylosin is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • Tylosin is not approved for use in dogs and cats by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but may be legally prescribed by veterinarians as an extra - label drug.

    Brand Names and Other Names

  • This drug is approved for use in farm animals.
  • Human formulations: None
  • Veterinary formulations: Tylan® (Elanco) and various generic formulations.

    Uses of Tylosin

    Tylosin is used in a variety of ways including:

  • To treat colitis in small animals
  • To treat small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in dogs (and perhaps cats)
  • To treat pulmonary, dermatologic, or other soft tissue infections caused by group beta-hemolytic streptococci and mycoplasma pneumoniae in small animals
  • To treat susceptible infections in large animals
  • As a growth promoter in food animals

    Precautions and Side Effects

  • Tylosin should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug or other macrolide antibiotics.
  • Gastrointestinal disturbance, resulting in diarrhea, may occurs after oral administration.
  • One drawback associated with oral administration is tylosin's foul taste, which is difficult to disguise.
  • When tylosin is administered in the muscle or under the skin, pain and local reactions may occur at the injection site. Skin itching may occur as a result of treatment with tylosin.

    Drug Interactions

    Tylosin may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with tylosin. Some interactions may include:

  • Digitalis: Tylosin may increase digitalis blood levels and thus its toxicity.
  • Chloramphenicol or Lincosamides: Tylosin may be antagonistic.
  • Laboratory Tests: Macrolide antibiotics may cause falsely high readings of serum AST and ALT when colorimetric assays are employed.

    How Tylosin is Supplied

  • Tylosin is available in an oral form that is concentrated at 2.7 gm/5mL (level teaspoonful) in 100 g bottles.

    Dosing Information

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • Doses of tylosin vary widely depending on the reason for prescribing.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse.
  • In dogs, the usual dose is 5 to 10 mg per pound (10 to 20 mg/kg) every 12 hours for up to 6 weeks.
  • In cats, the usual dose is 2.5 to 5 mg per pound (5 to 10 mg/kg) every 12 hours.



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