Symmetric Dimethylarginine (SMDA) Blood Testing in Dogs

Understanding the SMDA Blood Testing in Dogs

Kidney failure, often referred to as renal failure, is a common medical condition in dogs. There are many causes of renal failure and decreased kidney function over time (also known as chronic kidney disease or CKD). Some common causes of kidney function changes and failure can require toxins, infections, inflammation of the kidney, kidney stones (calculi), Lyme disease, neoplasia, hypercalcemia (elevated calcium), and various inherited conditions of the kidney. More information can be found in the PetPlace.com library in these articles: Chronic Renal (Kidney) Failure (CRF) in Dogs and Acute Renal (Kidney) Failure (ARF) in Dogs.

Chronic kidney disease is a common progressive condition in dogs. Early diagnosis and treatment can slow the progression and improve patient quality of life. Early stages of renal disease can be difficult to detect, as your dog may not show any signs until a significant amount of kidney function is lost. Often one of the earliest signs will be increased urination (polyuria) and increased thirst (polydipsia). Dogs will tend to show these signs earlier than cats.

Traditionally, creatinine has been the blood marker that is used in the clinic to monitor renal function. Creatinine does not increase on bloodwork until 75% of renal function is lost. It can also be affected by decreased muscle mass, dehydration, Addison’s disease, low blood pressure or other causes of decreased cardiac function, and muscle trauma or inflammation. There is a newer test available that will allow your veterinarian to monitor renal function changes much earlier than previously detected.

This blood test is called the SDMA (symmetric dimethylarginine assay). This article will explain what we can learn from SDMA monitoring and how this test is run.

What Does SMDA Blood Test Reveal in Dogs?

SDMA is made as the body processes protein. It is excreted from the bloodstream through the kidneys, if the kidneys aren’t able to filter as well as they should (like in chronic kidney disease or renal failure) the SDMA will increase in the blood. The SDMA value will start to increase when the kidneys have lost 40% of their filtering ability. If you remember from above, creatinine does not increase until 75% of this function is lost.

Besides early detection, SDMA also has the benefit that it is not affected by lean muscle mass. In aging dogs, their muscle mass will decrease and can cause the creatinine to be lowered and difficult to interpret. SDMA is also not affected by some factors that can alter lab machines’ ability to read certain values like lipemia, hemolysis or icterus. It is less affected by dehydration than BUN, another value on bloodwork that is used to monitor kidney function.

SDMA is not meant to be used as a sole test- the results need to be evaluated in combination with other blood values (BUN, creatinine and others), urinalysis (especially urine specific gravity and protein level), blood pressure and potentially other tests depending on your dog’s history and clinical picture.

What Are the Potential Uses of SDMA?

An early indicator of renal disease in patients with otherwise normal kidney values (BUN and creatinine)
Better assessment of renal function in patients with severely decreased muscle mass (cachexia)
Aid in differentiating renal versus non-renal causes of elevations in BUN and creatinine
Monitoring during rehydration therapy for patients with elevated BUN and creatinine
Monitoring response to therapy for renal disease over time

How Is SMDA Blood Test Done in Dogs?

Your veterinarian and their technical staff will use a needle to obtain a blood sample from your dog, they will usually need 3cc or less (about 1/2 teaspoon) to run the SDMA and other associated tests to evaluate your dog’s kidney function. They will put the sample into specific blood tubes and send it in to the laboratory. Depending on the lab used and when it is delivered to them from your veterinarian, you should have the results in 1-2 days.

Is SMDA Blood Test Painful to Dogs?

Any pain involved is associated with the collection of the blood sample, since a needle is used to pierce the skin and enter a blood vessel to draw the sample. As with people, the pain experienced from a needle will vary from dog to dog. Often pets resist being held still for the blood draw as much or more than the actual collection itself!

Is Sedation Needed for SMDA Blood Testing?

Neither sedation nor anesthesia is needed in most dogs; however, some dogs resent needle sticks and may need tranquilization or ultrashort anesthesia.

Symmetric Dimethylarginine (SMDA) Blood Testing in Cats

Understanding the SMDA Blood Testing in Cats

Kidney failure, often referred to as renal failure, is a common medical condition in cats. Up to 30% of cats over 15 years old are affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is often the precursor to renal failure.

There are many causes of renal failure and chronic kidney disease over time. Some common causes of CKD and renal failure can include toxins, infections, inflammation of the kidney, kidney or ureter stones (calculi), amyloidosis, neoplasia, hypercalcemia (elevated calcium), various inherited conditions of the kidney, and Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD). More information can be found in the PetPlace.com library in these articles: Chronic kidney failure in cats and Acute kidney failure in cats.

Chronic kidney disease is a common progressive condition in cats. Early diagnosis and treatment can slow the progression and improve patient quality of life. Early stages of renal disease can be difficult to detect, as your cat may not show any signs until a significant amount of kidney function is lost. Often one of the earliest signs will be increased urination (polyuria) and increased thirst (polydipsia). Dogs will tend to show these signs earlier than cats.

Traditionally, creatinine has been the blood marker that is used in the clinic to monitor renal function. Creatinine does not increase on bloodwork until 75% of renal function is lost! It can also be affected by decreased muscle mass, dehydration, low blood pressure or other causes of decreased cardiac function, and muscle trauma or inflammation.

There is now a new test that will allow your veterinarian to monitor renal function changes much earlier than previously detected. This blood test is called the SDMA (symmetric dimethylarginine assay). This article will explain what we can learn from SDMA monitoring and how this test is run.

What Does SMDA Blood Test Reveal in Cats?

SDMA is made as the body processes protein. It is excreted from the bloodstream through the kidneys if the kidneys aren’t able to filter as well as they should (like in chronic kidney disease or renal failure) the SDMA will increase in the blood. The SDMA value will start to increase when the kidneys have lost 40% of their filtering ability. If you remember from above, creatinine does not increase until 75% of this function is lost. This will now allow veterinarians to recognize chronic kidney disease much earlier in cats and begin to institute treatment and monitoring recommendations based on this information.

Besides early detection, SDMA also has the benefit that it is not affected by lean muscle mass. In aging cats, their muscle mass will decrease and can cause the creatinine to be lowered and difficult to interpret. SDMA is also not affected by some factors that can alter lab machines’ ability to read certain values like lipemia, hemolysis or icterus. It is less affected by dehydration than a BUN, another value on bloodwork that is used to monitor kidney function.

SDMA is not meant to be used as a sole test- the results need to be evaluated in combination with other blood values (BUN, creatinine, and others), urinalysis (especially urine specific gravity and protein level), blood pressure and potentially other tests depending on your cat’s history and clinical picture.

What are the potential uses of SDMA?

An early indicator of renal disease in patients with otherwise normal kidney values (BUN and creatinine)
Better assessment of renal function in patients with severely decreased muscle mass (cachexia)
Aid in differentiating renal versus non-renal causes of elevations in BUN and creatinine
Monitoring during rehydration therapy for patients with elevated BUN and creatinine
Monitoring response to therapy for renal disease over time

How Is SMDA Blood Test Done in Cats?

Your veterinarian and their technical staff will use a needle to obtain a blood sample from your cat, they will usually need 3cc or less (about 1/2 teaspoon) to run the SDMA and other associated tests to evaluate your cat’s kidney function. They will put the sample into specific blood tubes and send it into the laboratory. Depending on the lab used and when it is delivered to them from your veterinarian, you should have the results in 1-2 days.

Is SMDA Blood Test Painful to Cats?

Any pain involved is associated with the collection of the blood sample, since a needle is used to pierce the skin and enter a blood vessel to draw the sample. As with people, the pain experienced from a needle will vary from cat to cat. Often cats resist being held still for the blood draw as much or more than the actual collection itself!

Is Sedation Needed for SMDA Blood Testing?

Neither sedation nor anesthesia is needed in most cats; however, some cats resent needle sticks and may need tranquilization or ultrashort anesthesia.

Mometamax (Mometasone; Gentamicin; Clotrimazole) Otic Suspension for Dogs and Cats

Overview of Mometamax for Dogs and Cats

Mometamax is a medication to treat ear infections in dogs and cats. Otitis externa (outer ear infections) commonly include infection with both bacteria and yeast organisms. Many medications designed to treat these infections will include multiple medications to treat all aspects of the infection. You can learn more about otitis externa in these articles from the Petplace library: go to Otitis Externa (Ear Infections) in Dogs and Otitis Externa (Ear Infections) in Cats.

Mometamax contains three medications to treat your pet’s otitis:

  • Mometasone – a synthetic steroid that will help reduce inflammation in the ear canal. Inflammation is a large source of the pain associated with otitis, this will help your pet become comfortable more quickly.
  • Gentamicin – an aminoglycoside-type antibiotic that will treat a wide variety of bacteria types found in ear infections.
  • Clotrimazole – an antifungal medication used to treat infections caused by fungi (yeasts and molds). It is effective in the treatment of the common skin and ear yeast Malassezia pachydematitis and in control of the skin fungi (dermatophytes), Microsporum, Candida, and Trichophyton. The drug is also used occasionally for treatment of fungus infection of the nasal cavity.

Mometamax is specifically used to treat otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis) and bacteria (Pseudomonas, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, and beta-hemolytic streptococci).

Brand Names of Mometamax for Dogs and Cats

  • Mometamax® – Merck
  • Similar multi-drug products include:
    • Otomax Ointment (Intervet-Schering-Plough) which includes Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate and clotrimazole
    • Posatex (Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health) which includes Orbifloxacin, posaconazole, mometasone furoate monohydrate
    • Tresaderm (Merial) which includes neomycin sulfate, dexamethasone, and thiabendazole
    • Surolan (Vetoquinol) which includes miconazole nitrate, polymyxin B sulfate, and prednisolone acetate
    • Claro® Suspension which includes florfenicol, terbinafine, and mometasone Furoate
    • Generic formulations which contain neomycin, polymyxin B, and hydrocortisone (generics)

Uses of Mometamax in Dogs and Cats

  • Mometamax is prescribed to treat or control infections caused by susceptible yeast and bacterial ear infections (otitis externa). The product is currently labeled for use in dogs only but has been used “off-label” in cats also. This means it is believed to be safe but has not been directly researched in cats.
  • Mometamax is not effective against infections caused by viruses or parasites (such as worms or mites).
  • Identification of the cause of an ear infection should be undertaken by your veterinarian.
  • For more information on ear infections, please read Otitis Externa in Dogs or Otitis Externa in Cats.

Precautions and Adverse Side-Effects of Mometamax

  • The combination of clotrimazole, gentamicin, and mometasone found in Mometamax® is generally safe for use in dogs. It can also be used in cats but has not been labeled by the manufacturer for this usage at this time.
  • Your pet should be examined by your veterinarian before starting this medication, it should not be used in animals with a ruptured eardrum (tympanic membrane).
  • Signs of allergy to Mometamax® may include skin reactions, hives, and redness of the treated area.
  • Use of Mometamax® has been associated with partial hearing loss in a small number of geriatric dogs. It can be temporary in some dogs.
  • If you notice hearing loss, head tilt or dizziness in your pet undergoing treatment with Mometamax® stop the treatment and call your veterinarian immediately.
  • The steroid component of Mometamax®, mometasone has the advantage of having a lower risk of systemic corticosteroid signs than some other ear medications.
  • Do not use this drug in pregnant dogs.

How Mometamax® is Supplied

  • Mometamax® is available in various size bottles (7.5gm, 15 gm, 30 gm, and 215gm)
  • The ear canal should be cleaned and dried before the topical use of this product. It should be confirmed that the eardrum is intact prior to using this medication.
  • It is recommended to clip the excessive hair away from the area to be treated.

Dosing Information for Mometamax®

  • Mometamax® should only be used under the direction of a veterinarian. It may not be safe to administer the clotrimazole, gentamicin, and betamethasone combination to pets with certain medical problems.
  • The typical dose of Mometamax® ranges from 4 to 8 drops in the ear canal.
  • Administer 4 drops to dogs weighing less than 30 pounds once a day for 7 days, or as indicated by your veterinarian.
  • Apply 8 drops to dogs weighing more than 30 pounds once a day for 7 days.
  • Here is an article on How to Administer Ear Medication to Your Dog that may be helpful.
  • The duration of administration depends on the severity of the infection, response to the medication, and the presence of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription.

Resources & References

  • ASPCA Pet Poison Hotline
  • Current Veterinary Therapy XIV, Bonagura and Twedt
  • Current Veterinary Therapy XV, Bonagura and Twedt
  • Muller and Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology, Miller WH, Griffin CE, Campbell KL. 7th edition
  • Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Mometamax gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and clotrimazole suspension [product information]. Madison, NJ, USA.
  • Pet Poison Helpline
  • Plumb’s Veterinary Handbook by Donald C. Plumb, 9th Edition
  • Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Ettinger & Felman

11 Pet Dangers and Concerns for Pregnant Women

Your pets are an important part of the family and can continue to be a big part as your family grows. When there is a pregnant woman in the home, some precautions should be taken with handling your pets medications, supplements, and waste. The risk of handling cat waste/litter boxes is handled in a separate article. For more information on cats and pregnant women, see the following article in the PetPlace library: Are cats dangerous to pregnant women?

The focus of this article is medications and treatments your pet may receive and cautions that should be taken. You should always ask your veterinarian if you have any concerns about the treatments your pet is receiving while you are pregnant. This article is not meant to replace any advice given by your doctor, you should also let them know you have pets and what medications they are taking so they can discuss these topics. We tried to come up with the most common exposures you may have during pregnancy- if there is a medication prescribed that is not listed, check out our Drug Library to find out more information. Most of the concerns with the following medications can be avoided by wearing gloves when handling the medication and washing hands immediately afterward or having someone else in the house medicate your pet.

1. Chemotherapy: There are many different drugs used in chemotherapy in veterinary medicine and the safety margins will differ, it is important to discuss the specific drug used with your veterinarian. In general, the biggest danger is the elimination of the chemotherapy drug which is commonly in urine. Pregnant owners, those who are trying to conceive, or breastfeeding should avoid handling chemotherapy and should avoid their pet’s waste (urine, feces, and vomit) for 72 hours after the last treatment. For more information on Chemotherapy, go to Chemotherapy Treatment Procedure for Dogs.

2. Chloramphenicol: A broad spectrum antibiotic that is usually reserved for serious infections or those that have failed to respond to other antibiotics. It can cause bone marrow suppression, vomiting, and nausea in humans. All owners should wear gloves when giving this medication to their pets, pregnant and nursing women should use extra caution to avoid exposure. For more information on Chloramphenicol, see our drug library article: Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin®) for Dogs and Cats.

3. Cyclosporine: Immunosuppressant medication commonly used for severe allergies and skin conditions as well as autoimmune conditions such as immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA). Cyclosporine will also suppress the immune system in humans and contact with this medication should be avoided by pregnant women. For more information on Cyclosporine, go to Cyclosporine (Atopica®, Optimmune®, Sandimmune®) for Cats and Dogs.

4. Diethylstilbestrol (DES): Diethylstilbestrol is used in female dogs for hormone-responsive incontinence and can be used to avoid pregnancy in accidental mismating although the second use is controversial and not commonly recommended. This drug is a synthetic estrogen, a hormone important in female reproduction. Exposure to pregnant dogs or humans is not recommended. This medication is not used in cats. For more information on Diethylstilbestrol, go to Diethylstilbestrol (DES) for Female Dogs.

5. Dinoprost (prostaglandin-F2alpha; PGF2; Lutalyse®): Dinoprost is a salt of the naturally occurring prostaglandin F2alpha that can be used in cats and dogs to treat uterine infections (pyometra) or induce abortions. This drug should not be handled by pregnant women at all. Women of childbearing age and people with asthma or other respiratory problems should use extreme caution in handling these solutions. This drug is easily absorbed through the skin and can cause uterine contractions and bronchospasm in exposed people.

6. Mitotane (Lysodren) and Trilostane (Vetoryl): Both Mitotane and Trilostane are used to treat hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s disease) by interfering with the hormone production in the adrenal gland. It can reduce the production of prostaglandin and should not be used in pregnant animals, pregnant women should also use caution when handling these medications. For more information on treatment of Cushing’s disease and Mitotane or Trilostane therapy, see the articles in our drug and medical library: Mitotane (Lysodren®, o’p’DDD) for Dogs and Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Syndrome) in Dogs.

7. Methimazole (Tapazole, Felimazole): Methimazole is used to treat hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland) in cats. This medication interferes with thyroid function, which is crucial for a healthy pregnancy. It is available in tablets and a transdermal ointment that can be rubbed onto your cat’s skin, the transdermal ointment would not be recommended with a pregnant woman in the house. Pregnant or nursing women or women who may become pregnant should wear gloves when handling tablets, litter or bodily fluids of treated cats. For more information on Methimazole, see the article in our drug library: Methimazole (Tapazole®, Felimazole®) for cats.

Osurnia Otic Suspension (Florfenicol, Terbinafine, Betamethasone) for Dogs

Overview of Osurnia Medication for Dogs

  • Osurnia is a medication to treat ear infections in dogs. Otitis externa (outer ear infections) commonly include infection with both bacteria and yeast organisms. Many medications designed to treat these infections will include multiple medications to treat all aspects of the infection. You can learn more about otitis externa in these articles from the Petplace library: Otitis Externa (Ear Infections) in Dogs and Otitis Externa (Ear Infections) in Cats. 
  • Osurnia contains 3 medications to treat your pet’s otitis externa:

    • Florfenicol – a bacteriostatic antibiotic that will treat a wide variety of bacteria types found in ear infections.
    • Terbinafine – an antifungal medication used to treat infections caused by fungi (yeasts and molds). It is effective in the treatment of the common skin and ear yeast Malassezia pachydematitis.
    • Betamethasone – a glucocorticosteroid that will help reduce inflammation and itching in the ear canal. Inflammation is a large source of the pain associated with otitis, this will help your pet become comfortable more quickly.
  • Osurnia is specifically used to treat of otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudointermedius).

Brand Names

  • Osurnia® – Elanco Animal Health
    Similar multi-drug products include:

    • Tresaderm (Merial) which includes Neomycin sulfate, dexamethasone and thiabendazole
    • Otomax Ointment (Intervet-Schering-Plough) which includes Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate and clotrimazole
    • Posatex (Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health) which includes Orbifloxacin, posaconazole, mometasone furoate monohydrate
    • Generic formulations which contain Neomycin, polymyxin B, and hydrocortisone (generics)
    • Surolan (Vetoquinol) which includes Miconazole nitrate, polymyxin B sulfate, prednisolone acetate
    • Mometamax (Elanco Animal Health) which includes clotrimazole, gentamicin and mometasone

Uses of Osurnia in Dogs

  • Osurnia is prescribed to treat or control infections caused by susceptible yeast and bacterial ear infections (otitis externa). The product is currently labeled for use in dogs only.
  • Osurnia is not effective against infections caused by viruses or parasites (such as worms or mites).
  • Identification of the cause of an ear infection should be undertaken by your veterinarian.

Precautions and Adverse (Side-) Effects of Osurnia

  • The combination of florfenicol, terbinafine, betamethasone found in Osurnia® is generally safe for use in dogs.
  • Your pet should be examined by your veterinarian before starting this medication, it should not be used in animals with a ruptured ear drum (tympanic membrane).
  • Signs of allergy to Osurnia® may include skin reactions, hives and redness of the treated area.
  • Use of Osurnia® can potentially be associated with partial hearing loss in a small number of dogs. It can be temporary in some dogs.
  • If you notice hearing loss, head tilt or dizziness in your pet undergoing treatment with Osurnia® stop the treatment and call your veterinarian immediately.
  • The steroid component of Osurnia®, betamethasone can cause suppression if the adrenal gland and interfere with testing for disorders of the adrenal gland.
  • This medication has not been evaluated for use in breeding, pregnant or lactating dogs.

How Osurnia® is Supplied

Osurnia® is available in single use tubes with a flexible soft tip.
The ear canal should be cleaned and dried before the topical use of this product.

Osurnia

Dosing Information for Osurnia for Dogs

  • This drug should only be used under direction of a veterinarian. It may not be safe to administer the combination of florfenicol, terbinafine, betamethasone to pets with certain medical problems.
  • The typical dose of Osurnia® is the same for all dogs, the entire tube is squeezed into the ear canal. This dose is repeated in 7 days. The ear canal should not be cleaned for 45 days for all the gel to contact the canal.
  • The duration of administration depends on the severity of the infection, response to the medication, and the presence of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription.


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Vectra 3D Toxicity in Cats

Fleas are frustrating and annoying insects that thrive on our dogs and cats and many flea products safe for use on dogs can be toxic to cats, such as Vectra 3D. The component in Vectra 3D that is toxic to cats is “Permethrin”.

Getting rid of fleas is an important and sometimes difficult process. Fortunately, many products are available to reduce the flea population within our homes and on our pets. The most popular products include those supplied in small tubes that are applied to the back of the animal. This type of product generally lasts for about 30 days. The focus of this article is to discuss the toxicity of Vectra 3D, a product marketed for dogs, when cats are exposed either by application or contact with a dog with a recent application.

What is Vectra 3D?

Vectra 3D is a topical insecticide medication applied to the skin of dogs to repel and kill fleas, ticks, mosquitoes, biting and sand flies, lice and some mites. This protection lasts one month after application.

Vectra makes a topical product for cats and kittens that contains the drugs dinotefuran and pyriproxyfen. The Vectra 3D product contains these same medications plus permethrin which makes it only for dogs, as permethrin is an insecticide that is highly toxic to cats.

For more information on flea product toxicities and the toxic component of Vectra 3D, see also Permethrin and Pyrethrin Toxicity in Cats.

Overview of Feline Permethrin Toxicity

Permethrins, a class of synthetic insecticide, has a much greater potential for resulting in toxicity than it's natural counterpart, pyrethrins. Permethrin based topical flea products are usually labeled "for use in dogs only." There is a wide safety margin for permethrins in dogs. Cats, however, are exquisitely susceptible to the toxic effects of permethrins. Application of permethrin-based insecticide, like Vectra 3D to a cat will usually result in toxic signs within 6 hours.

What to Watch For

  • Drooling
  • Paw flicking or ear twitching
  • Lethargy
  • Muscle tremors
  • Vomiting
  • Difficulty walking/ataxia (stumbling when walking)
  • Seizures

Diagnosis of Vectra 3D Toxicity in Cats

The diagnosis of Vectra 3D (permethrin) toxicity is based on physical exam findings as well as a recent history of topical flea product application. There have also been reports of cats developing a toxicity when they are directly exposed to the product after it has been applied to a dog in the house or they groom the product off of a canine housemate. Although skin and hair tests can be done to confirm the presence of insecticide, those results may take several days and are often received too late to aid in treatment.

Treatment of Vectra 3D Toxicity in Cats

Treatment involves eliminating any existing product from the body and controlling seizures and muscle tremors. Expect your veterinarian to recommend hospitalization with continuous intravenous fluids. Additional recommendations for treatment may include:

Bathing with a mild dish soap (such as Dawn®) with lukewarm water to remove additional flea product from the pet's skin and reduce the amount absorbed.

Administering diazepam or phenobarbital for seizure control.

Administering methocarbamol to treat muscle tremors. This may be given multiple times throughout the hospital stay. This medication is usually started as an IV injection and can be continued with the oral pill when your cat's signs are improving.

For cases with severe signs or those that do not respond to the above therapy, another treatment option is intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLE). This is a solution of medium or long chain triglycerides and is primarily used in critical patients as part of an intravenous nutrition protocol. It has been found that these lipid solutions can help in toxicities that are fat soluble like Vectra 3D (permethrin). Side effects are rare with one time use of the lipid emulsions but can include irritation of the vein where administered (phlebitis), jaundice, anemia, inability of the blood to clot, and a low platelet count. The most common side effect is hyperlipidemia (elevated fats in the bloodstream). This treatment has shown great promise in reducing the signs of toxicity and decreasing the amount of time these cats need to be hospitalized.

If treated early, the majority of pets suffering from Vectra 3D toxicity recover enough to go home within 24-48 hours, although fine muscle tremors may continue for several days. Severity and the length of time that toxicity lasts will depend on the amount of Vectra 3D your cat was exposed to and how sensitive your pet is to this toxicity.