How Old is This Kitten?

When owners bring their new kitten to a veterinary practice, one of the first questions is: Can you tell me how old s/he is? The answer lies in the mouths of these babes.

Kittens, like human babies, are born without teeth. Only the gum surface can be seen. This allows them to nurse without hurting the mother. When they reach 25 to 30 days old their deciduous or temporary (baby) teeth start to break through the gums, which is referred to as “erupting.” Kittens have a total of 26 deciduous teeth by the time they reach 45 days of age.

As time goes by, these teeth are replaced by permanent teeth. The feline tooth fairy works somewhat faster than her human counterpart – most breeds show permanent teeth at 6 months of age.

Eruption of the permanent teeth is as follows:

Incisors

Central: 3-4 months

Intermediate: 3-4 months

Corner: 4-5 months

Canines

5 months

Premolars

Second: 5 months

Third: 5-6 months

Fourth: 5-6 months

Molars

First: 4-5 months

The Formulas

Following a complicated formula (which, for the more intrepid is included below), veterinarians can estimate the age of a kitten by the number of permanent versus deciduous teeth.

Kittens will have a total of 26 baby teeth by the time they reach 45 days of age. The dental formula for baby teeth lists the number of each type of tooth and whether that tooth is on the top jaw or lower jaw. The kitten dental formula is as follow: 2 (I 3/3 C 1/1 PM 3/2) = 26 teeth.

The I in the formula stands for incisor. The C stands for canine and PM stands for premolars. There are no baby molars. The top number is the number of teeth in the upper jaw. The bottom number is the number of teeth in the lower jaw. The dental formula lists the teeth only on 1/2 of the mouth. The right and left side are the same. This is the reason for the number 2 before the formula.

After the baby teeth are lost, permanent teeth erupt. The permanent dental formula for cats is 2(I 3/3 C1/1 PM 3/2 M 1/1) = 30 teeth.

The letters stand for incisor, canine, premolar and molar.

For example if a kitten has his permanent canines and first molars we can estimate his age to be 5 months.

Dental Care

Your veterinarian will examine your kitten’s mouth at every visit starting at 45 days of age and through 6 to 7 months of age. This will help to determine any problems during the eruption of the permanent teeth. Some of these include: extra teeth, malocclusion and retained deciduous (baby teeth).

Dental health and regular brushing is key to your cat’s general health. Start brushing early in your kitten’s life by using gauze, then switch to a finger brush. Brushing a minimum of three times a week will prevent early feline resorptive lesions, gingivitis and periodontal disease later in your cat’s life.

How Old is This Puppy?

Our question this week was:

We found a puppy but don't know how old he is. How can I tell?

The answer lies in the mouths of these babes. Puppies, like human babies, are born without teeth. Only the gum surface is visible. This allows them to nurse without hurting the mother. When they reach 30 days of age, their deciduous or temporary (baby) teeth start to break through the gums. This is referred to as "erupting." Puppies have a total of 28 deciduous teeth by the time they reach 45 days of age. This is a good time to give puppies plenty of chew toys.

As time goes by, these teeth are replaced by permanent teeth. The canine tooth fairy works somewhat faster than her human counterpart – most breeds show permanent teeth at 6 to 7 months of age.

Eruption of the permanent teeth is as follows:

Incisors
Central: 2-5 months
Intermediate: 2-5 months
Corner: 4-5 months

Canines
5 months

Premolars
First: 4-5 months
Second: 6 months
Third: 6 months
Fourth: 4-5 months

Molars
First: 5-6 months
Second: 6-7 months
Third: 6-7 months

Our question this week came from Pam G. Atlanta, GA

Dr. Debra

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Methylprednisolone (Medrol®, Depo-Medrol®) for Dogs and Cats

 

Overview of Methylprednisolone for Canines and Felines

  •  Methylprednisolone, also known as Medrol® or Depo-Medrol®, is a steroid drug used in dogs and cats to treat inflammation, autoimmune diseases of the skin, and feline bronchial asthma. Methylprednisolone comes in both an oral and injectable form. 
  • The immune and inflammation systems of pets and people constitute essential safeguards against infections and disease.
  • However, in some situations, inflammation is dangerous and leads to severe damage in tissues and organs.
  • Similarly, the immune system, often for no apparent reason, can attack the body and cause great damage or even death. Many of the resultant medical conditions are called autoimmune diseases.
  • Drugs that control inflammation and suppress the immune system are often needed to treat diseases in animals. Methylprednisolone is one of these drugs. This drug is classified as a glucocorticoid because it is related to cortisone and contains glucose in the molecule.
  • Effects of glucocorticoids can be observed in every organ system and these drugs should only be used when necessary.
  • Methylprednisolone is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Methylprednisolone

  • This drug is registered for use in humans and animals.
  • Human formulations: Medrol® (Upjohn), Depo-Medrol® (Upjohn) and generics
  • Veterinary formulations: Medrol® (Upjohn), Depo-Medrol® (Upjohn) and generics
  • Uses of Methylprednisolone for Dogs and Cats

  • Methylprednisolone is used for its anti-inflammatory effect.
  • It can be used in treatment of allergic reactions and inflammatory diseases.
  • Certain autoimmune diseases of the skin may be treated with this drug. Other immune-mediated diseases, such as immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, can also be treated using methylprednisolone.
  • It may be injected into the skin lesion for lick granuloma conditions in dogs (along with supportive behavioral modification therapy).
  • Methylprednisolone is sometimes used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of trauma of the spinal cord and brain.
  • Methylprednisolone is used in cats for the treatment of feline bronchial asthma, feline rodent ulcer (eosinophilic granuloma), feline inflammatory bowel disease, flea allergy dermatitis and miliary dermatitis.
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, methylprednisolone can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Methylprednisolone should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • This drug should not be used in animals with glaucoma, diabetes, Cushing's syndrome (hyperadrenocorticism), pregnancy, congestive heart failure, corneal ulcers, high blood pressure and kidney failure.
  • Methylprednisolone should not be used in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin.
  • Methylprednisolone should be avoided in animals with viral and fungal infections.
  • In general, glucocorticoids are not used before surgical procedures because these drugs may delay the healing process.
  • Methylprednisolone may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with methylprednisolone. Such drugs include furosemide, insulin, phenobarbital, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, other steroids and certain antibiotics.
  • Common adverse side effects of methylprednisolone include vomiting, behavior modification, lethargy, increased water intake, increased frequency of urination, increased appetite and panting.
  • Common adverse effects of long term treatment with methylprednisolone include hair loss, skin thinning and pigmentation, muscle weakness, diarrhea and complications related to diabetes.
  • Glucocorticoids may exacerbate gastrointestinal ulcers by stimulating the production of gastric enzymes and impairing wound healing.
  • How Methylprednisolone Is Supplied

  • Methylprednisolone is availabe in tablets, an intravenous injection (methylprednisolone sodium succinate) and a "repositol" (longer-acting) injection form (methylprednisolone acetate).
  • Methylprednisolone is available in variety of sizes from 1 mg to 32 mg.
  • The drug is also available as a 20 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml solution for injection.
  • Dosing Information of Methylprednisolone for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • The doses of methylprednisolone used in dogs and cats depend on the condition, severity, preparation, route of administration (oral or injectable) and other factors.
  • Doses range from 0.5 mg per pound (1 mg/kg) to 15 mg per pound (30 mg/kg).
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your dog or cat feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse.
  • <!–

    Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (Steroids & Nsaids)
    Immunosuppressive & Immunomodulator Drugs

    –>

    Methylprednisolone (Medrol®, Depo-Medrol®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Methylprednisolone for Canines and Felines

  •  Methylprednisolone, also known as Medrol® or Depo-Medrol®, is a steroid drug used in dogs and cats to treat inflammation, autoimmune diseases of the skin, and feline bronchial asthma. Methylprednisolone comes in both an oral and injectable form. 
  • The immune and inflammation systems of pets and people constitute essential safeguards against infections and disease.
  • However, in some situations, inflammation is dangerous and leads to severe damage in tissues and organs.
  • Similarly, the immune system, often for no apparent reason, can attack the body and cause great damage or even death. Many of the resultant medical conditions are called autoimmune diseases.
  • Drugs that control inflammation and suppress the immune system are often needed to treat diseases in animals. Methylprednisolone is one of these drugs. This drug is classified as a glucocorticoid because it is related to cortisone and contains glucose in the molecule.
  • Effects of glucocorticoids can be observed in every organ system and these drugs should only be used when necessary.
  • Methylprednisolone is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Methylprednisolone

  • This drug is registered for use in humans and animals.
  • Human formulations: Medrol® (Upjohn), Depo-Medrol® (Upjohn) and generics
  • Veterinary formulations: Medrol® (Upjohn), Depo-Medrol® (Upjohn) and generics
  • Uses of Methylprednisolone for Dogs and Cats

  • Methylprednisolone is used for its anti-inflammatory effect.
  • It can be used in treatment of allergic reactions and inflammatory diseases.
  • Certain autoimmune diseases of the skin may be treated with this drug. Other immune-mediated diseases, such as immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, can also be treated using methylprednisolone.
  • It may be injected into the skin lesion for lick granuloma conditions in dogs (along with supportive behavioral modification therapy).
  • Methylprednisolone is sometimes used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of trauma of the spinal cord and brain.
  • Methylprednisolone is used in cats for the treatment of feline bronchial asthma, feline rodent ulcer (eosinophilic granuloma), feline inflammatory bowel disease, flea allergy dermatitis and miliary dermatitis.
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, methylprednisolone can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Methylprednisolone should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • This drug should not be used in animals with glaucoma, diabetes, Cushing's syndrome (hyperadrenocorticism), pregnancy, congestive heart failure, corneal ulcers, high blood pressure and kidney failure.
  • Methylprednisolone should not be used in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin.
  • Methylprednisolone should be avoided in animals with viral and fungal infections.
  • In general, glucocorticoids are not used before surgical procedures because these drugs may delay the healing process.
  • Methylprednisolone may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with methylprednisolone. Such drugs include furosemide, insulin, phenobarbital, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, other steroids and certain antibiotics.
  • Common adverse side effects of methylprednisolone include vomiting, behavior modification, lethargy, increased water intake, increased frequency of urination, increased appetite and panting.
  • Common adverse effects of long term treatment with methylprednisolone include hair loss, skin thinning and pigmentation, muscle weakness, diarrhea and complications related to diabetes.
  • Glucocorticoids may exacerbate gastrointestinal ulcers by stimulating the production of gastric enzymes and impairing wound healing.
  • How Methylprednisolone Is Supplied

  • Methylprednisolone is availabe in tablets, an intravenous injection (methylprednisolone sodium succinate) and a "repositol" (longer-acting) injection form (methylprednisolone acetate).
  • Methylprednisolone is available in variety of sizes from 1 mg to 32 mg.
  • The drug is also available as a 20 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml solution for injection.
  • Dosing Information of Methylprednisolone for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • The doses of methylprednisolone used in dogs and cats depend on the condition, severity, preparation, route of administration (oral or injectable) and other factors.
  • Doses range from 0.5 mg per pound (1 mg/kg) to 15 mg per pound (30 mg/kg).
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your dog or cat feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse.
  • <!–

    Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (Steroids & Nsaids)
    Immunosuppressive & Immunomodulator Drugs

    –>

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) for Female Dogs

     

    Overview of Diethylstilbestrol for Dogs

  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a hormone classified as a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. It is used primarily for treatment of urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs. It is thought that DES increases the responsiveness of the smooth muscle of the bladder neck to nerve activity, tightening the muscle and preventing leakage of urine. The hormone also has a stimulating effect on the reproductive system.
  • Diethylstilbestrol is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Diethylstilbestrol

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulations: None
  • Veterinary formulations: None
  • Diethylstilbestrol is no longer commercially available in some countries and is no longer a marketed drug in the United States; however, some veterinarians still have supplies of this drug and the drug can be obtained from compounding pharmacies.
  • Uses of Diethylstilbestrol for Dogs

  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is prescribed for the treatment of hormonal responsive urinary incontinence in the spayed female dog. There are other drugs that also can be used in place of DES. However, DES may be the better choice in those pets that cannot tolerate phenylpropanolamine or ephedrine.
  • DES also has been used to prevent conception (pregnancy) after mismating (unplanned breeding) in dogs and cats. However, the drug is potentially dangerous for this use.
  • DES has been used to treat estrogen responsive tumors, hyperplasia of the prostate gland and in perianal gland adenomas. However, neutering (castration) is the initial treatment of choice.
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, diethylstilbestrol can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Diethlystilbestrol should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Diethlystilbestrol may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with DES.
  • Diethylstilbestrol should never be used in pregnant animals.
  • Estrogens at excessive doses, or in very susceptible animals, can depress the bone marrow, reducing the number of blood cells. This leads to decreased formation of platelets (needed for clotting), depressed white blood cell count (needed to fight infection), and reduced red blood cells (anemia). These effects can be prolonged or irreversible and fatal.
  • Symptoms of an adverse effect include lethargy, depression, pale mucous membranes, abnormal vaginal discharge, loss of appetite and bleeding from the gastrointestinal and urinary tract.
  • Diethylstilbestrol can also increase the risk of uterine infections (pyometra) when given to intact (unspayed) female dogs.
  • Animals receiving therapy with DES should be monitored monthly by a veterinarian.
  • Diethylstilbestrol has been involved in cases of immune mediated thrombocytopenia in dogs.
  • How Diethylstilbestrol Is Supplied

  • Diethylstilbestrol may be available through compounding pharmacies by prescription from your veterinarian.
  • Dosing Information of Diethylstilbestrol for Dogs

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • Dosing for prevention of conception after mismating: 0.1 to 1 mg per dog, orally for five days after mating. Some specialists argue that this drug should never be used for this purpose.
  • Dosing in dogs for hormone responsive incontinence is typically 0.1 to 1 mg orally once a day for three to five days, then the dosage is reduced to 1 mg orally once a week.
  • Periodic complete blood counts and platelet counts should be obtained in dogs receiving DES on a chronic basis.
  • DES is not used in cats. 
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
  • <!–

    Endocrine Drugs

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    Nephrology & Urology
    Reproductive Disorders & Theriogenology

    –>


    Ephedrine for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Ephedrine for Canines and Felines

  • Ephedrine is used for dogs and cats to treat urinary incontinence.
  • Ephedrine is a potent central nervous system stimulant classified as a sympathomimetic alkaloid agent.
  • Ephedrine causes the release of the sympathetic nervous system chemical norepinephrine. The involuntary nervous system is divided into the sympathetic (flight or fight response) and parasympathetic branches. In general, these two systems oppose each other.
  • When stimulated, the sympathetic system increases heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac activity. It also dilates the bronchial tree and contracts certain smooth muscles such as that found at the neck of the bladder.
  • Ephedrine is a prescription drug and can be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • Ephedrine is also available in some states without a prescription but should not be administered unless under the supervision and guidance of a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Ephedrine

    This drug is registered for use in humans only.

  • Human formulations: Ephedrine® (Lilly) and various over-the-counter (OTC) products.
  • Veterinary formulations: None
  • Uses of Ephedrine for Dogs and Cats

  • Ephedrine is used primarily for the treatment of urinary incontinence (involuntary leakage of urine from the bladder), not related to neurologic disease.
  • Ephedrine increases sphincter tone and reduces incompetence in small animals.
  • For its bronchodilator activity, it has been used in the treatment of respiratory conditions like bronchitis in small animals; however, other drugs such as theophylline and terbutaline are more often prescribed.
  • It is also used to treat nasal congestion in some animals. 
  • Precautions and side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, ephedrine can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Ephedrine should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Ephedrine may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with ephedrine. Such drugs include phenylpropanolamine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Toxic effects may occur when ephedrine is combined with drugs the make the urine more alkaline (urinary alkalinizers). Risk of cardiac arrhythmia is greater when ephedrine is used in combination with digoxin for treatment of congestive heart failure.
  • Common side effects seen are loss of appetite, changes in behavior (hyperirritability, restlessness) and tachycardia (increased heart rate).
  • Ephedrine is contraindicated in hyperthyroidism, glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and disorders of the cardiovascular system.
  • How Ephedrine Is Supplied

  • Ephedrine capsules are available in 25 mg (OTC) or 50 mg (Rx).
  • Ephedrine solution for injection is available in 25 to 50 mg/ml concentration.
  • Dosing Information of Ephedrine for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • For treatment of urinary incontinence in dogs, ephedrine is dosed at about 2 mg per pound (4 mg/kg) or 12.5 to 50 mg by mouth, every 8 to 12 hours.
  • As a bronchodilator in dogs, ephedrine is dosed at approximately 1 mg per pound (2 mg/kg), orally, every 8 to 12 hours; a maintenance dose is about 50 percent of this.
  • For treatment of urinary incontinence in cats, ephedrine is dosed at 1 to 2 mg per pound (2 to 4 mg/kg), by mouth, every 8 to 12 hours; a lower dose is 2 to 4 mg per cat every 8 hours.
  • As a bronchodilator in cats for emergency treatment, ephedrine is dosed at 2 to 5 mg per cat by mouth.
  • Response to treatment may not be immediately evident, and it is recommended that the dosing instructions be followed carefully to achieve optimal results.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
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    Renal & Urinary System Drugs

    –>


    (?)

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) for Female Dogs

     

    Overview of Diethylstilbestrol for Dogs

  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a hormone classified as a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. It is used primarily for treatment of urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs. It is thought that DES increases the responsiveness of the smooth muscle of the bladder neck to nerve activity, tightening the muscle and preventing leakage of urine. The hormone also has a stimulating effect on the reproductive system.
  • Diethylstilbestrol is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Diethylstilbestrol

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulations: None
  • Veterinary formulations: None
  • Diethylstilbestrol is no longer commercially available in some countries and is no longer a marketed drug in the United States; however, some veterinarians still have supplies of this drug and the drug can be obtained from compounding pharmacies.
  • Uses of Diethylstilbestrol for Dogs

  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is prescribed for the treatment of hormonal responsive urinary incontinence in the spayed female dog. There are other drugs that also can be used in place of DES. However, DES may be the better choice in those pets that cannot tolerate phenylpropanolamine or ephedrine.
  • DES also has been used to prevent conception (pregnancy) after mismating (unplanned breeding) in dogs and cats. However, the drug is potentially dangerous for this use.
  • DES has been used to treat estrogen responsive tumors, hyperplasia of the prostate gland and in perianal gland adenomas. However, neutering (castration) is the initial treatment of choice.
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, diethylstilbestrol can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Diethlystilbestrol should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Diethlystilbestrol may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with DES.
  • Diethylstilbestrol should never be used in pregnant animals.
  • Estrogens at excessive doses, or in very susceptible animals, can depress the bone marrow, reducing the number of blood cells. This leads to decreased formation of platelets (needed for clotting), depressed white blood cell count (needed to fight infection), and reduced red blood cells (anemia). These effects can be prolonged or irreversible and fatal.
  • Symptoms of an adverse effect include lethargy, depression, pale mucous membranes, abnormal vaginal discharge, loss of appetite and bleeding from the gastrointestinal and urinary tract.
  • Diethylstilbestrol can also increase the risk of uterine infections (pyometra) when given to intact (unspayed) female dogs.
  • Animals receiving therapy with DES should be monitored monthly by a veterinarian.
  • Diethylstilbestrol has been involved in cases of immune mediated thrombocytopenia in dogs.
  • How Diethylstilbestrol Is Supplied

  • Diethylstilbestrol may be available through compounding pharmacies by prescription from your veterinarian.
  • Dosing Information of Diethylstilbestrol for Dogs

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • Dosing for prevention of conception after mismating: 0.1 to 1 mg per dog, orally for five days after mating. Some specialists argue that this drug should never be used for this purpose.
  • Dosing in dogs for hormone responsive incontinence is typically 0.1 to 1 mg orally once a day for three to five days, then the dosage is reduced to 1 mg orally once a week.
  • Periodic complete blood counts and platelet counts should be obtained in dogs receiving DES on a chronic basis.
  • DES is not used in cats. 
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
  • <!–

    Endocrine Drugs

    –>


    (?)

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    Nephrology & Urology
    Reproductive Disorders & Theriogenology

    –>


    Fludrocortisone Acetate (Florinef®) for Cats and Dogs

     

    Overview of Fludrocortisone Acetate for Canines and Felines

  •  Fludrocortisone Acetate, also known by the brand name Florinef®, is used for dogs and cats to treat mineralocorticoid deficiency secondary to Addison's Disease.
  • Addison's disease – more properly known as hypoadrenocorticism – is a deficiency of hormones (cortisol, aldosterone) normally produced by the adrenal gland.
  • Consequences of this disorder can include extreme weakness, shock, vomiting, diarrhea, disturbances of blood potassium and sodium, abnormal heart rhythms and death.
  • Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs is an autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of the adrenal gland cortex (outer layers) and a deficiency of vital hormones.
  • One of the hormones produced by the adrenal glands and absent in Addison's disease is aldosterone. This hormone assists the kidney in retaining needed sodium and losing excessive potassium.
  • Deficiency of the hormone increases sodium loss in the urine, reduces blood pressure and increases blood potassium. High blood potassium can be dangerous, leading to fatal cardiac arrhythmias.
  • Treatment of Addison's disease requires replacement of missing hormones. It is essential to replace aldosterone with a similar hormone.
  • Fludrocortisone acetate is a synthetic hormone used in the treatment of mineralocorticoid deficiency (also called Addison's disease) in small animals.
  • Fludrocortisone is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Fludrocortisone Acetate

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulations: Florinef® (Apothecon)
  • Veterinary formulations: None
  • Uses of Fludrocortisone for Dogs and Cats

  • Fludrocortisone is used in the treatment of mineralocorticoid deficiency (Addison's disease).
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, fludrocortisone can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Fludrocortisone should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Fludorcortisone may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with fludrocortisone. Such drugs include furosemide, insulin and amphotericin B.
  • If the animal does not receive a sufficient dose of fludrocortisone, loss of appetite (anorexia), vomiting, diarrhea, weakness and depression may result.
  • Overdose of fludrocortisone can result in excessive thirst, low blood potassium, and high blood sodium.
  • Blood tests must be done regularly to monitor the effects of treatment.
  • How Fludrocortisone Is Supplied

  • Fludrocortisone is available in 0.1 mg tablets.
  • Dosing Information of Fludrocortisone Acetate for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • The typical daily dose administered to dogs for maintenance treatment of Addison's disease is one to four tablets depending on body weight and response to treatment.
  • For cats the typical dose is 0.1 mg (1 tablet) daily depending on body weight.
  • Final dose adjustments are made on the base of blood tests that measure electrolytes (sodium, potassium).
  • Many animals undergoing treatment for Addison's disease also require glucocorticoid drugs that are similar to cortisone. These include prednisolone and methylprednisolone.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
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    Endocrine Drugs

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    Endocrinology & Metabolic diseases

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    (?)

    Desmopressin (DDAVP®, Stimate®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Desmopressin for Dogs and Cats

  •  Desmopressin, also known as DDAVP® or Stimate®, is used for treatment of central diabetes insipidus in dogs and cats. It is also used to treat von Willebrand's disease.  
  • Water balance in the body is controlled by the amount of water consumed relative to the amount lost in the intestines, sweat and urine. The kidney is ultimately responsible for controlling water balance in the body.
  • Control of kidney function comes from nerves and hormones. One of these hormones, antidiuretic hormone or ADH, plays a key role by allowing the kidney to control water loss in the urine.
  • Another function of ADH is constriction of blood vessels to raise blood pressure. This has lead to a second name for this hormone – vasopressin.
  • Desmopressin is a synthetic vasopressin.
  • Desmopressin acetate is used for replacement of deficient ADH.
  • Another effect of desmopressin is a transient increase in certain blood clotting factors.
  • Desmopressin is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Desmopressin

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulations: DDAVP® (Rhone-Poulenc Rorer)
  • Veterinary formulations: None
  • Uses of Desmopressin for Dogs and Cats

  • Desmopressin is used in the treatment of central diabetes insipidus in dogs and cats.
  • An unusual application of this drug is in the therapy of von Willebrand's disease, a blood clotting problem commonly found in dogs. This is a genetic disorder involving clotting proteins (factors) and the blood platelet.
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, desmopressin can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Desmopressin should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Desmopressin may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with desmopressin. Such drugs include epinephrine, heparin,and fludrocortisone.
  • Desmopressin can cause conjunctival irritation (inflammation) of the eyes after administration in some patients.
  • Fluid retention can also occur following high doses of desmopressin.
  • How Desmopressin Is Supplied

  • Desmopressin is available as a nasal solution, solution for injection and tablet form.
  • Nasal solution: 10 micrograms/0.1 ml in 2.5 or 5 ml bottles
  • Injectable form: 4 micrograms/ml, 1 ml or 10 ml bottles.
  • Tablet form: 0.1 and 0.2 mg tablets
  • Dosing Information of Desmopressin for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • DDAVP nasal drops are administered into the eye or into the nose. The latter approach can be difficult in some pets.
  • The dose for desmopressin is one to two drops of the nasal spray administered in the conjunctival sac (eyes) or in each nostril once or twice daily.
  • Desmopressin can also be given as a subcutaneous injection. The dose is 1 to 2 mcg per dog for central diabetes insipidus.
  • For von Willebrand's disease, desmopressin is dosed at 0.5 mcg per pound (1 mcg/kg) subcutaneously as needed. The effect of the drug generally lasts for about 4 hours.
  • There is no injectable dose available for cats.
  • Unfortunately, this treatment is not cost effective, as the drug is very expensive.
  • Life-term therapy is needed for treatment of central diabetes insipidus.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
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    Endocrine Drugs

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    Endocrinology & Metabolic diseases
    Hematology & Hemic-Lymphatic diseases

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    Ephedrine for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Ephedrine for Canines and Felines

  • Ephedrine is used for dogs and cats to treat urinary incontinence.
  • Ephedrine is a potent central nervous system stimulant classified as a sympathomimetic alkaloid agent.
  • Ephedrine causes the release of the sympathetic nervous system chemical norepinephrine. The involuntary nervous system is divided into the sympathetic (flight or fight response) and parasympathetic branches. In general, these two systems oppose each other.
  • When stimulated, the sympathetic system increases heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac activity. It also dilates the bronchial tree and contracts certain smooth muscles such as that found at the neck of the bladder.
  • Ephedrine is a prescription drug and can be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • Ephedrine is also available in some states without a prescription but should not be administered unless under the supervision and guidance of a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Ephedrine

    This drug is registered for use in humans only.

  • Human formulations: Ephedrine® (Lilly) and various over-the-counter (OTC) products.
  • Veterinary formulations: None
  • Uses of Ephedrine for Dogs and Cats

  • Ephedrine is used primarily for the treatment of urinary incontinence (involuntary leakage of urine from the bladder), not related to neurologic disease.
  • Ephedrine increases sphincter tone and reduces incompetence in small animals.
  • For its bronchodilator activity, it has been used in the treatment of respiratory conditions like bronchitis in small animals; however, other drugs such as theophylline and terbutaline are more often prescribed.
  • It is also used to treat nasal congestion in some animals. 
  • Precautions and side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, ephedrine can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Ephedrine should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Ephedrine may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with ephedrine. Such drugs include phenylpropanolamine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Toxic effects may occur when ephedrine is combined with drugs the make the urine more alkaline (urinary alkalinizers). Risk of cardiac arrhythmia is greater when ephedrine is used in combination with digoxin for treatment of congestive heart failure.
  • Common side effects seen are loss of appetite, changes in behavior (hyperirritability, restlessness) and tachycardia (increased heart rate).
  • Ephedrine is contraindicated in hyperthyroidism, glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and disorders of the cardiovascular system.
  • How Ephedrine Is Supplied

  • Ephedrine capsules are available in 25 mg (OTC) or 50 mg (Rx).
  • Ephedrine solution for injection is available in 25 to 50 mg/ml concentration.
  • Dosing Information of Ephedrine for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • For treatment of urinary incontinence in dogs, ephedrine is dosed at about 2 mg per pound (4 mg/kg) or 12.5 to 50 mg by mouth, every 8 to 12 hours.
  • As a bronchodilator in dogs, ephedrine is dosed at approximately 1 mg per pound (2 mg/kg), orally, every 8 to 12 hours; a maintenance dose is about 50 percent of this.
  • For treatment of urinary incontinence in cats, ephedrine is dosed at 1 to 2 mg per pound (2 to 4 mg/kg), by mouth, every 8 to 12 hours; a lower dose is 2 to 4 mg per cat every 8 hours.
  • As a bronchodilator in cats for emergency treatment, ephedrine is dosed at 2 to 5 mg per cat by mouth.
  • Response to treatment may not be immediately evident, and it is recommended that the dosing instructions be followed carefully to achieve optimal results.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
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    Renal & Urinary System Drugs

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