Amoxicillin + Clavulanate (Clavamox®, Augmentin®) for Dogs and Cats

 

Overview of Amoxicillin & Clavulanate for Canines and Felines

  • Amoxicillin + clavulanate is commonly used in dogs and cats to treat a variety of infections and its most common brand name is Clavamox® and Augmentin®.
  • Amoxicillin + clavulanate is a combination of two drugs that act together (synergistically) to treat or prevent bactercatial infections in animals. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic related to penicillin, except that it has a somewhat broader spectrum of antibacterial action.
  • Clavulanate is an inhibitor of an enzyme produced by bacteria. This enzyme, beta-lactamase, would ordinarily render amoxicillin inactive. Clavulanate has no antibacterial effects; it simply acts as an inhibitor of an important resistance mechanism.
  • The combination of these two drugs in the same tablet means they act synergistically to treat bacterial infections that would otherwise have been resistant to amoxicillin alone.
  • As with similar penicillin drugs, amoxicillin + clavulanate kills bacteria by inhibiting production of the bacteria cell wall. Other related drugs include ampicillin, penicillin G and ticarcillin.
  • Amoxicillin + clavulanate is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.

Brand Names and Other Names of Amoxicillin & Clavulanate

  • This drug is registered for use in humans and animals.
  • Human formulation: Augmentin® (SK-Beecham)
  • Veterinary formulation: Clavamox® (Beecham), Clavamox-Drops® (Beecham)

Uses of Amoxicillin + Clavulanate for Dogs and Cats

  • Amoxicillin + clavulanate is administered to treat infections caused by susceptible bacteria.
  • Infections treated with amoxicillin + clavulanate may include skin infections, bone infections, wound infections, infections in the mouth, pneumonia and bladder infections.
  • Amoxicillin + clavulanate is not effective for viruses and parasitic infections (such as worms or mites).
  • Despite the combination of amoxicillin plus clavulanate, resistance may still occur with some bacteria and infections unresponsive to treatment are possible.

Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, amoxicillin + clavulanate can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Amoxicillin + clavulanate should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Some animals may vomit shortly after administration of amoxicillin + clavulanate. This may occur in as many as 10 percent of dogs. In these cases, it may be helpful to feed the animal some food prior to drug administration to decrease stomach irritation. If vomiting after administration continues to occur, contact your veterinarian.
  • It is common for animals to develop diarrhea or loose stools from oral amoxicillin, and the same reaction may occur with amoxicillin + clavulanate. This is caused by a change in the bacterial population in the animal’s intestine.
  • Amoxicillin + clavulanate may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with amoxicillin + clavulanate. Such drugs include chloramphenicol and tetracycline.

How Amoxicillin with Clavulanate is Supplied

  • The veterinary form of amoxicillin + clavulanate is supplied in various size tablets ranging from 62.5 to 400 mg and a 50 mg/ml liquid oral suspension. These forms contain an amoxicillin to clavulanate ratio of 5 to 1.
  • The human form has a slightly different ratio of the amoxicillin to clavulanate; however this drug should also be safe for animals. Augmentin® is available in tablets in a range of sizes that vary from 250 to 875 mg (amoxicillin content), chewable tablets ranging in size from 125 to 400 mg, and oral liquid suspension that contains from 25 to 80 mg amoxicillin per ml. Clavulanate content in these preparations varies from 2:1 to 7:1 (amoxicillin:clavulanate).

 

Dosing Information for Clavamox® in Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • The dose of amoxicillin ranges from 5 to 12 mg per pound (10 to 25 mg/kg) two or three times a day orally.  The most common dose of clavamox® used in dogs and cats is 6.875 mg per pound (13.75 mg/kg) every 12 hours.
  • Doses are determined according to amoxicillin content of the tablet since ratios of clavulanate in the preparation may vary.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.

 

 

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Azathioprine (Imuran®) for Dogs and Cats

 

Overview of Azathioprine for Dogs and Cats

  • Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive drug that is chemically related to some anti-cancer chemotherapy agents. Also known as Imuran®, is used to treat a number of autoimmune diseases in dogs.  It is sometimes used with caution in cats. Azathioprine is often used in combination with corticosteroids. 
  • Azathioprine is used to suppress cells involved in autoimmune diseases including those involving the skin, blood, or multiple body systems. An example of the latter is systemic lupus erythematosus (or "lupus").
  • Azathioprine suppresses the immune system by interfering with the metabolism of immune and antibody-producing cells (lymphocytes).
  • Azathioprine is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Azathioprine

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulation: Imuran® (Glaxo Wellcome) and various generic preparations
  • Veterinary formulation: None
  • Uses of Azathioprine for Dogs and Cats

  • Azathioprine is prescribed to treat a number of autoimmune diseases in dogs, including:
  • Hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells leading to anemia) in dogs
  • Thrombocytopenia (low blood platelets needed for normal blood clotting)
  • Arthritis when associated with autoimmune disease
  • Skin diseases (such as pemphigus)
  • Chronic liver inflammation (chronic, active hepatitis)
  • Immune system disorders of the stomach and intestine (inflammatory bowel diseases)
  • Certain kidney diseases (glomerulonephritis)
  • Myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease affecting the junction of nerves and muscles
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, azathioprine can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Azathioprine should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Because azathioprine is a potent immunosuppressive drug, extreme caution should be exercised when prescribing and administering this drug.
  • This drug can suppress the immune system severely and reduce the production of needed blood cells.
  • Cats are particularly susceptible to the suppressive effects of azathioprine on blood cells. This drug should be used very cautiously and at low doses, if at all, in cats.
  • Azathioprine may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with azathioprine. Such drugs include certain muscle relaxants and allopurinol.
  • Symptoms of adverse effect include lethargy, fever, reluctance to move, and loss of appetite. Any of these signs should be reported to your veterinarian.
  • It is not unusual for animals to develop transient diarrhea or loose stools with oral azathioprine treatment. Often this is a mild side effect. If diarrhea persists for more than a few days after starting treatment with azathioprine, your veterinarian should be notified.
  • If animals vomit in association with azathioprine treatment, contact your veterinarian. It may be a sign of a drug-induced effect such as pancreatitis.
  • Approximately 10 percent of dogs and all cats may be extremely sensitive to azathioprine because they lack enzymes to metabolize the active drug. Therefore, animals receiving treatment should have a blood test periodically to check for numbers of blood cells.
  • Azathioprine is related to other anticancer agents and should be always kept out of reach of children and other pets in the household.
  • How Azathioprine Is Supplied

  • Azathioprine is available in 50 mg tablets.
  • Dosing Information of Azathioprine for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • The typical dose administered to dogs is 0.5 to 1.0 mg per pound (1 to 2 mg/kg) orally every day to every other day.
  • If administered to cats, the dose should be 0.15 mg per pound (0.3 mg/kg) every other day orally.
  • It typically takes several days or weeks before azathioprine produces its full therapeutic effect once treatment is initiated.
  • Azathioprine often is administered in combination with other drugs, most often corticosteroids (cortisone-like drugs) such as prednisone.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
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    Doxycycline (Vibramycin®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Doxycycline for Canines and Felines

    • Doxycycline is an antibiotic of the tetracycline class used to treat infections in dogs and cats. This drug is related to other tetracyclines such as chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline.
    • Doxycycline will inhibit the synthesis of protein within susceptible organisms (bacteria, etc.), resulting in their death.
    • Doxycycline is often used for infections caused by bacteria and by microorganisms that are not susceptible to common antibiotics.
    • Doxycycline is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
    • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.

    Brand Names and Other Names of Doxycycline

    • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
    • Human formulations: Vibramycin® (Pfizer), Monodox® (Oclassen), Doryx® (Parke-Davis) and various generic preparations
    • Veterinary formulations: None

    Uses of Doxycycline for Dogs and Cats

    • Doxycycline is an antibiotic used to treat infections in animals caused by susceptible bacteria.
    • Examples of these infections include urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, blood-borne infections and wound infections.
    • Doxycycline is especially useful for treating tick-borne bacterial diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichiosis and water-borne infections such as leptospirosis.
    • Doxycycline is also used to treat Wolbachia, an organism that infects heartworms, in an effort to treat heartworm disease.
    • Doxycycline is not effective for treating infections caused by a virus or fungus.

    Precautions and Side Effects

    • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, doxycycline can cause side effects in some animals.
    • Doxycycline should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
    • Doxycycline may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with doxycycline. Such drugs include certain antacids, iron supplements, kaolin, bismuth subsalicylate and certain antibiotics.
    • Occasionally vomiting has been observed, especially when high doses are administered.
    • Rarely, animals may develop diarrhea or loose stools from oral doxycycline. This is related to a change in the bacterial population in the animal’s intestine. If diarrhea is observed, your veterinarian should be notified, and a change in medication may be indicated.
    • Doxycycline may bind to calcium in teeth and cause discoloration. Therefore, the administration of doxycycline to animals younger than seven months of age is discouraged without first consulting with a veterinarian.
    • Doxycycline should not be administered orally with calcium or calcium-containing medications because they may inhibit oral absorption of the antibiotic.

    How Doxycycline is Supplied

    • Doxycycline is available as 100 mg tablets, 10 mg/ml oral liquid suspension and as a solution for injection.

    Dosing Information of Doxycycline for Dogs and Cats

    • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
    • The typical dose administered to animals is 2.5 mg per pound (5 mg/kg) every 12 hours orally.
    • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.

     

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    Carprofen (Rimadyl®, Novox®, Quellin®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Carprofen for Canines and Felines

    • Carprofen is an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug for dogs and sometimes cats. Better known as Rimadyl®, Novox® or Quellin®, it treat minor pains and inflammation.  Carprofen is generally not recommended for use in cats but is approved for use in the U.K. Carprofen is also be investigated for use to treat certain cancers.
    • Carprofen belongs to the general class of drugs known as
      [[rol||nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs|A group of drugs, roughly related to aspirin and ibuprofen, which work by inhibiting the formation of particular chemicals in the body (prostaglandins). The NSAID’s are effective in reducing pain, inflammation, and fever, but carry the risk of causing stomach ulcers, liver injury and kidney damage in animals.]] (NSAIDs). Other related drugs include ibuprofen, aspirin and naproxen.
    • These drugs suppress inflammation and pain by inhibiting synthesis of the class of compounds called prostaglandins.
    • Carprofen is unique compared to other NSAIDs in that it may also act by other mechanisms.
    • Carprofen is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.

    Brand Names and Other Names of Carprofen

    • This drug is registered for use in animals only.
    • Human formulations: None
    • Veterinary formulations: Rimadyl® (Pfizer), Novox® (Vedco), Quellin® (Bayer) and other generics available.
    • Marketed as “Zenecarp” in the U.K.

    Uses of Carprofen for Dogs and Cats

    • Carprofen is used to treat minor pain, inflammation and conditions such as chronic arthritis. Carprofen is also used for use in the treatment of postoperative pain associated with soft tissue and orthopedic surgeries in dogs.
    • Caprofen is being used to treat certain cancers.
    • Use in cats is very limited and requires greater study.

    Precautions and Side Effects

    • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, carprofen can cause side effects in some animals.
    • Carprofen should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
    • Cats are particularly sensitive to carprofen.
    • Carprofen may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with carprofen. Such drugs include aspirin and corticosteroids. There is an increased risk of NSAID-related problems such as bleeding or ulcers if other NSAIDs or cortisone-like drugs are given at the same time.
    • Carprofen has generally been a very safe drug in dogs. There have been occasional reports of stomach upset, ulcers, or diarrhea associated with giving carprofen to dogs.
    • More serious problems associated with carprofen include stomach ulcers, liver injury, and urinary tract problems. Other rare side effects include blood cell suppression and seizures.
    • Many veterinarians recommend monitoring blood tests periodically to identify potential side effects of this drug.

    How Carprofen Is Supplied

    • Carprofen is available in 25 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg chewable tablets, soft chewable tablets (Quellin) and caplets.
    • Carprofen is also available as an injectable form concentrated at 50 mg/ml.

    Dosing Information of Carprofen for Dogs and Cats

    • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
    • The typical oral dose administered to dogs is 1 mg per pound (2.2 mg/kg) every 12 hours orally or 2 mg per pound (4.4 mg/kg) once daily.
    • The recommended injectable dose for initial surgical pain is 1.8 mg per pound (4 mg/kg) intravenously then 1 mg/pound (2.2 mg/kg) by either oral, intravenous, subcutaneous or intramuscular routes repeating in 12 hours if necessary.
    • Carprofen is generally not recommended in cats but if given, should be given as a single dose. Carprofen is approved for use in the U.K. but not in the United States. Doses used in cats is 2 mg per pound (4 mg/kg) subcutaneously or intravenously as a one time dose prior to surgery.  Some reports suggest that a dose of 12.5 mg orally or subcutaneously can be used once weekly. Should be used with extreme caution in cats.
    • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.

     

    Enrofloxacin (Baytril®) in Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Enrofloxacin (Baytril) for Dogs and Cats

  • Enrofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat infections in animals like dogs and cats caused by susceptible bacteria. Bettors comes in both an oral and injectable formulations. 
  • Enrofloxacin belongs to a general class of antibiotics known as fluoroquinolones. Other related drugs in this class include ciprofloxacin.
  • Enrofloxacin is thought to inhibit the synthesis of DNA within the bacteria, resulting in bacterial death.
  • Enrofloxacin is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Enrofloxacin

  • This drug is registered for use in animals only.
  • Human formulations: None
  • Veterinary formulations: Baytril® (Bayer Animal Health)
  • Uses of Enrofloxacin for Dogs and Cats

  • Enrofloxacin is used to treat a variety of infections, including skin infections, urinary tract infections, respiratory infections and wound infections caused by susceptible bacteria.
  • Enrofloxacin is not effective for treating infections caused by viruses, parasites or molds.
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, enrofloxacin can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Enrofloxacin should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug. Enrofloxacin should be used with caution in dogs and cats with kidney or liver disease. 
  • Enrofloxacin may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with enrofloxacin. Such drugs include antacid medications, iron supplements and some stomach protectants.
  • Occasionally, some animals develop diarrhea or loose stools from enrofloxacin.
  • Very rarely, enrofloxacin has precipitated some behavior changes or seizures in animals.
  • Young animals treated with enrofloxacin may develop damage to the cartilage of their joints. Swollen joints and lameness are clinical signs that may be observed.
  • Enrofloxacin should not be administered to puppies. Those between the ages of 4 and 28 weeks are the most susceptible.
  • A rare but very serious adverse reaction – blindness – has been observed in cats treated with injectable enrofloxacin. When administering enrofloxacin to cats it is important not to exceed the manufacturer's recommended dose.
  • How Enrofloxacin Is Supplied

  • Enrofloxacin is available in tablets of 22.7 mg, 68 mg and 136 mg.
  • There also is an injection of 22.7 mg/ml.
  • Dosing Information of Enrofloxacin (Baytril) for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • The typical dose of Baytril administered to dogs is 2.5 to 10 mg per pound (5 to 20 mg/kg) orally per day. The total daily dose may be given once a day or divided into twice daily doses.
  • In cats, the dose of Baytril should not exceed 5 mg/kg per day orally. The daily dose can be divided and given every 12 hours. 
  • Treatment is generally extended for 2 to 3 days beyond th last clinical sign of infection. 
  • Ideally Baytril should be given on an empty stomach. 
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
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    Enrofloxacin (Baytril®) in Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Enrofloxacin (Baytril) for Dogs and Cats

    • Enrofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat infections in animals like dogs and cats caused by susceptible bacteria. Bettors come in both an oral and injectable formulations.
    • Enrofloxacin belongs to a general class of antibiotics known as fluoroquinolones. Other related drugs in this class include ciprofloxacin.
    • Enrofloxacin is thought to inhibit the synthesis of DNA within the bacteria, resulting in bacterial death.
    • Enrofloxacin is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.

    Brand Names and Other Names of Enrofloxacin

    • This drug is registered for use in animals only.
    • Human formulations: None
    • Veterinary formulations: Baytril® (Bayer Animal Health)

    Uses of Enrofloxacin for Dogs and Cats

    Precautions and Side Effects

    • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, enrofloxacin can cause side effects in some animals.
    • Enrofloxacin should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug. Enrofloxacin should be used with caution in dogs and cats with kidney or liver disease.
    • Enrofloxacin may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with enrofloxacin. Such drugs include antacid medications, iron supplements and some stomach protectants.
    • Occasionally, some animals develop diarrhea or loose stools from enrofloxacin.
    • Very rarely, enrofloxacin has precipitated some behavior changes or seizures in animals.
    • Young animals treated with enrofloxacin may develop damage to the cartilage of their joints. Swollen joints and lameness are clinical signs that may be observed.
    • Enrofloxacin should not be administered to puppies. Those between the ages of 4 and 28 weeks are the most susceptible.
    • A rare but very serious adverse reaction – blindness – has been observed in cats treated with injectable enrofloxacin. When administering enrofloxacin to cats it is important not to exceed the manufacturer’s recommended dose.

    How Enrofloxacin Is Supplied

    • Enrofloxacin is available in tablets of 22.7 mg, 68 mg and 136 mg.
    • There also is an injection of 22.7 mg/ml.

    Dosing Information of Enrofloxacin (Baytril) for Dogs and Cats

    • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
    • The typical dose of Baytril administered to dogs is 2.5 to 10 mg per pound (5 to 20 mg/kg) orally per day. The total daily dose may be given once a day or divided into twice daily doses.
    • In cats, the dose of Baytril should not exceed 5 mg/kg per day orally. The daily dose can be divided and given every 12 hours.
    • Treatment is generally extended for 2 to 3 days beyond th last clinical sign of infection.
    • Ideally Baytril should be given on an empty stomach.
    • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.

     

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    Doxycycline (Vibramycin®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Doxycycline for Canines and Felines

  • Doxycycline is an antibiotic of the tetracycline class used to treat infections in dogs and cats. This drug is related to other tetracyclines such as chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline.
  • Doxycycline will inhibit the synthesis of protein within susceptible organisms (bacteria, etc.), resulting in their death.
  • Doxycycline is often used for infections caused by bacteria and by microorganisms that are not susceptible to common antibiotics.
  • Doxycycline is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Doxycycline

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulations: Vibramycin® (Pfizer), Monodox® (Oclassen), Doryx® (Parke-Davis) and various generic preparations
  • Veterinary formulations: None
  • Uses of Doxycycline for Dogs and Cats

  • Doxycycline is an antibiotic used to treat infections in animals caused by susceptible bacteria.
  • Examples of these infections include urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, blood-borne infections and wound infections.
  • Doxycycline is especially useful for treating tick-borne bacterial diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichiosis and water-borne infections such as leptospirosis.
  • Doxycycline is also used to treat Wolbachia, an organism that infects heartworms, in an effort to treat heartworm disease.
  • Doxycycline is not effective for treating infections caused by a virus or fungus.
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, doxycycline can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Doxycycline should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Doxycycline may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with doxycycline. Such drugs include certain antacids, iron supplements, kaolin, bismuth subsalicylate and certain antibiotics.
  • Occasionally vomiting has been observed, especially when high doses are administered.
  • Rarely, animals may develop diarrhea or loose stools from oral doxycycline. This is related to a change in the bacterial population in the animal's intestine. If diarrhea is observed, your veterinarian should be notified, and a change in medication may be indicated.
  • Doxycycline may bind to calcium in teeth and cause discoloration. Therefore, the administration of doxycycline to animals younger than seven months of age is discouraged without first consulting with a veterinarian.
  • Doxycycline should not be administered orally with calcium or calcium-containing medications because they may inhibit oral absorption of the antibiotic.
  • How Doxycycline is Supplied

  • Doxycycline is available as 100 mg tablets, 10 mg/ml oral liquid suspension and as a solution for injection.
  • Dosing Information of Doxycycline for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • The typical dose administered to animals is 2.5 mg per pound (5 mg/kg) every 12 hours orally.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
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    Respiratory & Thoracic diseases
    Hematology & Hemic-Lymphatic diseases
    Nephrology & Urology
    Orthopedics & Musculo-Skeletal diseases
    Multiple organ systems can be affected

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    Ketoconazole (Nizoral®) for Cats and Dogs

     

    Overview of Ketoconazole for Cats and Dogs

    • Ketoconazole, commonly known by the brand name Nizoral®, is used in cats and dogs to treat infections caused by fungi. It is also used as an alternative treatment for hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. Newer antifungal drugs are more commonly recommended over ketoconazole in dogs and cats due to their enhanced effectiveness and less side effects.
    • Ketoconazole belongs to a general class of drugs known as antifungal drugs. Other related drugs in this class include itraconazole, miconazole and fluconazole.
    • Ketoconazole inhibits the growth of fungal organisms by interfering with the formation of the fungal cell wall.
    • Ketoconazole is effective only against fungal or yeast organisms. These fungi are the ones that cause skin infections (dermatophytes) commonly known as “ringworm” and toenail infections. However, the drug is also effective for some of the more serious fungal infections, such as blastomycosis, coccidoidomycosis and cryptococcosis. These infections can affect the skin, lymph nodes, eyes, bone and respiratory tract (lungs).
    • Ketoconazole is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
    • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.

    Brand Names and Other Names of Ketoconazole

    • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
    • Human formulations: Nizoral® (Janssen) and various topical formulations
    • Veterinary formulations: None

    Uses of Ketoconazole for Dogs and Cats

    • Ketoconazole is used in both dogs and cats to treat infections caused by fungi. These infections may affect the skin, claws, lymph nodes, respiratory tract, bone and other tissues.
    • Infections treated by ketoconazole include blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, yeast infections (Malassezia) and dermatophyte infections (dogs and cats).
    • Ketoconazole is not effective against infections caused by bacteria, parasites (intestinal worms), mites, or viruses.
    • Ketoconazole suppresses hormone synthesis and has been used to treat conditions associated with excessive production of the hormone cortisone from the adrenal gland such as hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Disease).
    • Ketoconazole interferes with the metabolism of several drugs including cyclosporine.Cyclosporine is an expensive drug and Ketoconazole is sometimes used to allow for a reduction in dose of the drug cyclosporine.

    Precautions and Side Effects

    • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, ketoconazole can cause side effects in some animals.
    • Ketoconazole should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
    • Ketoconazole may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with ketoconazole. Such drugs include antacids, cimetidine, cisapride, methylprednisolone, anticonvulsants, heart medications, cyclosporine and theophylline.
    • The most serious adverse effect is that which affects the liver (hepatitis). Signs of decreased appetite, jaundice, vomiting or diarrhea should be reported to your veterinarian.
    • Ketoconazole may cause vomiting, diarrhea and decreased appetite.
    • Ketoconazole has caused changes in the hair coat of animals, causing a lightening of the hair color in dogs and a drying of the hair coat in cats.
    • Eye problems (cataracts) have been associated with administration of ketoconazole in dogs.
    • Ketoconazole inhibits the hormone synthesis in animals and treated animals have decreased levels of cortisol (cortisone), testosterone and other sex hormones. These changes may affect reproduction and cause some animals to appear depressed or lethargic.
    • Do not administer ketoconazole to a pregnant animal because it has caused fetal death.

    How Ketoconazole Is Supplied

    • Ketoconazole is available as a 200 mg tablet.

    Dosing Information of Ketoconazole for Dogs and Cats

    • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
    • The dose for Ketoconazole varies greatly depending on the underlying disease being treated.
    • The usual dose for dogs is 5 to 7 mg per pound (10 to 15 mg/kg) every 12 hours orally.
    • The dose for cats is 2.5 to 5 mg per pound (5 to 10 mg/kg) every 12 hours orally. For yeast infections of the skin (Malassezia) the dose is 2.5 mg per pound (5 mg/kg) per day orally.
    • It is common for fungal infections to require several weeks of treatment.
    • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.

     

    Cephalexin (Keflex®, Rilexine®) for Dogs and Cats

    Overview of Cephalexin for Canines and Felines

    • Cephalexin, also known by the brand names Keflex® and Rilexine®, is an antibiotic used for dogs and cats. Cephalexin belongs to the cephalosporin class of drugs and is related to the penicillin drugs in how it kills bacteria. Cephalosporins have a much broader range of activity against bacteria than penicillins. Cephalexin is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics to dogs and cats.
    • Cephalexin will prevent the bacteria from forming an adequate and protective cell wall. This results in instability and subsequent death of the bacteria.
    • Cephalexin is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
    • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.

    Brand Names and Other Names of Cephalexin

    • This drug is registered for use in dogs and cats only.
    • Human formulations: Keflex® (Dista), and various other generic forms
    • Veterinary formulations: Rilexine®

    Uses of Cephalexin for Dogs and Cats

    • Cephalexin is used in both dogs and cats to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including skin infections, wound infections, bone infections, pneumonia, and bladder infections.
    • Cephalexin is similar to the veterinary drug cefadroxil, and veterinarians often use the two drugs interchangeably. The drugs have equal effectiveness.
    • Cephalexin is not effective against infections caused by parasites (intestinal worms), mites, viruses or fungi.

    Precautions and Side Effects

    • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, cephalexin can cause side effects in some animals.
    • Cephalexin should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
    • If a dog or cat is already sensitive to allergy or vomiting from other cephalosporin drugs (cefadroxil) or penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), cross-reaction with cephalexin is possible.
    • Cephalexin may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with cephalexin. Such drugs include certain other antibiotics.
    • The most common side effect in animals is vomiting shortly after administration. It is usually not a sign of serious disease but indicates that the pet is sensitive to this drug.
    • It is not unusual for some animals to develop diarrhea from orally administered antibiotics such as cephalexin. However, this has not been a common complaint with cephalexin.

    How Cephalexin Is Supplied

    • Cephalexin is available in 250 mg and 500 mg capsules, 250 mg and 500 mg tablets and an oral suspension in the strength of 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml.
    • Cephalexin Chewable Tablets (Rilexine®): 75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg, and 600 mg.
    • An injectable version is available in some countries.

     

    Dosing Information of Cephalexin for Dogs and Cats

    • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
    • The usual dose of cephalexin for dogs and cats is 10 to 15 mg per pound (22 to 30 mg/kg) every 8 to 12 hours orally.
    • Reduced dosages are recommended for pets with kidney failure.
    • Should be administered with food if cephalexin causes nausea or vomiting in your pet.
    • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.

     

     Antibiotics & Antimicrobial Drugs

    Orthopedics & musculoskeletal diseases
    Nephrology & Urology
    Otic diseases
    Dermatology & Integumentary diseases
    Respiratory & Thoracic diseases
    Multiple organ systems can be affected

     

     

    Cephalexin (Keflex®, Rilexine®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Cephalexin for Canines and Felines

  • Cephalexin, also known by the brand names Keflex® and Rilexine®, is an antibiotic used for dogs and cats. Cephalexin belongs to the cephalosporin class of drugs and iis related to the penicillin drugs in how it kills bacteria. cephalosporins have a much broader range of activity against bacteria than penicillins. Cephalexin is one of the most commonly prescribed antibotics to dogs and cats. 
  • Cephalexin will prevent the bacteria from forming an adequate and protective cell wall. This results in instability and subsequent death of the bacteria.
  • Cephalexin is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Cephalexin

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulations: Keflex® (Dista), and various other generic forms
  • Veterinary formulations: Rilexine®
  • Uses of Cephalexin for Dogs and Cats

  • Cephalexin is used in both dogs and cats to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including skin infections, wound infections, bone infections, pneumonia, and bladder infections.
  • Cephalexin is similar to the veterinary drug cefadroxil, and veterinarians often use the two drugs interchangeably. The drugs have equal effectiveness.
  • Cephalexin is not effective against infections caused by parasites (intestinal worms), mites, viruses or fungi.
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, cephalexin can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Cephalexin should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • If a dog or cat is already sensitive to allergy or vomiting from other cephalosporin drugs (cefadroxil) or penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), cross-reaction with cephalexin is possible.
  • Cephalexin may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with cephalexin. Such drugs include certain other antibiotics.
  • The most common side effect in animals is vomiting shortly after administration. It is usually not a sign of serious disease, but indicates that the pet is sensitive to this drug.
  • It is not unusual for some animals to develop diarrhea from orally administered antibiotics such as cephalexin. However, this has not been a common complaint with cephalexin.
  • How Cephalexin Is Supplied

  • Cephalexin is available in 250 mg and 500 mg capsules, 250 mg and 500 mg tablets and an oral suspension in the strength of 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml.
  • Cephalexin Chewable Tablets (Rilexine®): 75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg, and 600 mg. 
  • An injectable version is available in some countries. 
  • Dosing Information of Cephalexin for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian. 
  • The usual dose of cephalexin for dogs and cats is 10 to 15 mg per pound (22 to 30 mg/kg) every 8 to 12 hours orally. 
  • Reduced dosages are recommended for pets with kidney failure. 
  • Should be administered with food if cephalexin causes nausea or vomiting in your pet. 
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
  •  

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    Antibiotics & Antimicrobial Drugs

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    Orthopedics & Musculo-Skeletal diseases
    Nephrology & Urology
    Otic diseases
    Dermatology & Integumentary diseases
    Respiratory & Thoracic diseases
    Multiple organ systems can be affected

    –>


    (?)