Nausea in cats is a very common condition. It can occur on its own or just prior to the act of vomiting. In humans, nausea is also referred to as “feeling sick to your stomach” or “queasy” and is associated with a feeling of discomfort and unease in the stomach. In cats, nausea is harder to define, as animals can’t tell you they feel unwell. In many occasions, it is unclear that there is an issue until the cat vomits. The most common symptoms of nausea in cats are lack of appetite, licking, excessive chewing, hypervocalization (excessive meowing), restlessness, and drooling. Nausea can make cats feel uncomfortable and restless. Some cats will pace around while meowing while others will lie in the same spot drooling.
Overview of Feline Nausea
Nausea is a nonspecific symptom, which means there are many different possible causes. These causes can include an upset stomach, changes in diet, eating something indigestible, eating too fast, overeating, eating something that is spoiled or unpleasant, licking something with an unpleasant taste (such as cleaning chemicals or topical flea prevention products), motion sickness, and certain medications.
A number of diseases or conditions can also cause nausea in cats, especially disorders of the gastrointestinal system (stomach and/or intestines). Nausea can be secondary to a disease from a different system such as cancer, kidney failure, diabetes, or various infectious diseases. This can make the diagnosis of the cause of the nausea a challenge.
At one time or another, your cat may have a bout of vomiting before which he probably had a period of nausea. Vomiting may be a sign of a very minor problem or it may be a sign of something very serious.
An occasional, infrequent, isolated episode of nausea with or without vomiting is usually normal and not a reason for major concern.
The severity or concurrence of other signs will determine the specific diagnostic tests your vet will recommend. Important considerations include the duration and frequency of the nausea. If your cat vomits once then eats normally with no further vomiting, has a normal bowel movement, and acts playful, the problem may resolve on its own. If nausea and vomiting continue after your cat eats your cat acts lethargic or doesn’t want to eat, then medical attention is warranted.
Nausea in Cats – What to Watch For:
Signs of nausea in cats often include:
- Excessive drooling
- Excessive licking
- Excessive chewing
- Anorexia (lack of appetite)
Nausea may also be associated with:
- Dry heaving
- Dehydration due to persistent vomiting
- Abnormal behavior or physical abnormalities associated with prolonged vomiting including lethargy (reluctance to move), abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, blood in the vomit, or other unexpected physical changes
Diagnosis of Nausea in Cats
Administering the optimal therapy for any serious or persistent medical condition depends on establishing the correct diagnosis. There are numerous potential causes of nausea and subsequent vomiting and before any treatment can be recommended, it is important to identify the underlying cause and direct the initial therapy towards resolving it.
Diagnostic measures and tests may include:
- A review of your cat’s complete medical history and a physical examination, including abdominal palpation. The medical history assessment will most likely include questions regarding vaccination history, diet, appetite, general health, presence and character of vomitus (frequency, progression, presence of blood, duration of vomiting), weight loss, past medical problems, medication history and presence of other gastrointestinal signs such as vomiting and/or diarrhea.
- Your veterinarian may recommend a variety of laboratory tests including a complete blood count (CBC), a serum biochemical panel, and a urinalysis.
- Fecal examination (to determine the presence of parasites or blood).
- Plain radiography (X-rays) or contrast X-rays (X-rays performed after your cat is given a contrast material such as barium or aqueous iodine), which can help determine the cause of the vomiting.
- Ultrasonography is an imaging technique that allows visualization of abdominal structures by recording reflection (echoes) of inaudible sound waves to determine the size and shape of abdominal organs, it can also detect changes in the consistency or texture of organs.
- Endoscopy may be useful for diagnosis or to remove foreign bodies in the stomach. Endoscopy can also be used for examination of the stomach and a portion of the intestine and to potentially obtain biopsies of abnormal areas noted during the exam.
Treatment of Nausea in Cats
Common treatments for feline nausea may include one or more of the following:
- A primary strategy is eliminating the predisposing cause (such as a change in diet), eating plants, overeating, eating too fast, ingesting chemicals including flea prevention medications, etc.). Patients who eat too quickly or overeat can be treated by feeding small portions at a time, sometimes with the use of feeders designed to slow eating.
- An acute episode of nausea with or without vomiting in a playful cat, in the absence of other physical abnormalities, may be treated symptomatically without hospitalization (outpatient treatment). This treatment may consist of subcutaneous fluids, injectable drugs used to control nausea and vomiting (anti-emetics), and a follow-up appointment if the symptoms are not resolved immediately. A drug commonly used to treat nausea is Maropitant (commonly known by the brand name Cerenia). This drug comes in both injectable and oral forms. Many times a cat is given an injection and sent home with the oral pills.
- Cats that have abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, or have any other unusual symptoms or behaviors may be treated with hospitalization. This therapy may include intravenous fluid administration, 24-hour monitoring, and drug therapy. It is often combined with diagnostic testing to determine the cause of the vomiting.
- Sick cats may require referral to an emergency or 24-hour hospital that offers around-the-clock care.
Learn more about what you can do at home for the vomiting cat.
Home Care and Prevention of Nausea in Cats
Follow up with your veterinarian for re-examinations of your cat as recommended and administer any prescribed medications. If your cat experiences an inadequate response to prior measures, a further workup may be necessary to determine the underlying cause of the nausea.
- Treatments for nausea are dependent on the cause. Symptomatic therapy of an episode of nausea includes withholding food and water for three to four hours. If your cat has not vomited by the end of this time, offer small amounts of water (a tablespoon at a time). Continue to offer small amounts of water every 20 minutes or so for as long as your vet recommends.
- After the small increments of water are offered, gradually offer a bland diet. Small frequent feedings of a bland digestible diet such as Hill’s prescription diet I/D, Iams Recovery Diet, Purina EN, or Waltham Low Fat are usually recommended.
- Homemade diets can be made of boiled rice or potatoes (as a carbohydrate source) and lean hamburger, skinless chicken, or low-fat cottage cheese (as a protein source). Some cats will not eat the carbohydrate portion of the home cooked diet, if this is the case you may offer just the protein portion of the diet.
- The return to regular cat food should be a gradual process over one to two days. If vomiting continues at any time or the onset of other symptoms is noted, call your veterinarian promptly
- Medications to reduce stomach acid may be recommended. A common and safe medication frequently used at home is famotidine (Pepcid). For dosage and medication information, go to the Drug Library article on Pepcid.
If you suspect your cat is suffering from nausea, it is important to see your veterinarian. Your cat needs your help and the professional care your veterinarian can provide. Expect your veterinarian to perform some diagnostic tests and make treatment recommendations during your visit.
Prevention is aimed at minimizing your cat’s exposure to foreign material (strings, ribbons, yarn, trash, chemicals, etc.) or toxins. Keep your cat indoors to minimize her access to foreign material that may be located outside. If you cat is suffering from nausea as a result of overeating, you may wish to feed smaller meals more frequently. As always, monitor your cat’s appetite and general health for any changes.
We hope this gives you more information on nausea in cats.