Neck and Back Pain in Cats
Overview of Feline Neck and Back Pain
Neck or back pain is discomfort along the spine. This pain may be mild and associated with subtle clinical signs, such as reluctance to jump or climb stairs. For some animals, the pain may be excruciating and associated with crying or moaning, reluctance to move, decreased appetite and malaise.
Back pain must be differentiated from diffuse pain arising in nearby tissues. When pain is present in the abdominal organs and the abdominal muscles, it may be difficult to distinguish such pain from actual back pain. Even a thorough examination by your veterinarian may not be able to always localize the pain, particularly because animals cannot describe their pain or identify for us where it is at its worst.
Causes of Neck and Back Pain in Cats
There are a variety of causes of neck and back pain and they include muscle diseases, vertebral disorders, nerve problems, etc. Examples include the following:
Epaxial muscle diseases. With these diseases, pain arises within the muscles along the back or neck. Such diseases include soft tissue injuries, bite wounds, inflammation, and infection.
Vertebral disk disorders. Disk disorders are uncommon in the cat, although rarely, infections may occur within the disks.
Spinal trauma. Fractures and dislocations of the spine may result in severe pain.
Cancer. Cancer of the vertebrae, nerve roots, or soft tissues around the spine may cause back or neck pain.
Disorders of the meninges. The meninges are membranes that cover the brain and the spine. Inflammation or infection of the meninges may cause stiffness and pain along the neck and back.
Referred pain. Referred pain is pain that arises in one organ, but is felt in an adjacent area. An example of referred pain is kidney pain that is felt along the back.
What to Watch For
A changes in your pet’s posture
Stiffness of the neck
Reluctance to turn or raise the head
Pain upon palpation (feeling or manipulation) of the neck or back
Obvious deformities of the spine
Bruising, puncture wounds, or lacerations within the soft tissues around the spine
Weakness, wobbliness, inability to walk, paralysis of one or more legs
Crying out with movement of the spine
Fever, lethargy, poor appetite
Diagnosis or Neck and Back Pain in Cats
Evaluation of the cat with neck or back pain begins with a complete medical history and a thorough physical examination. An extensive neurologic examination may also be indicated. If the pain can be localized to the neck or back, then several tests may be recommended to further investigate the possible cause of the pain. Such tests include the following:
Baseline blood tests such as a complete blood count (CBC), biochemical profile, urinalysis, and urine culture are performed to look for signs of infection and assess various organ functions.
Abdominal radiographs (X-rays) are taken to identify any abnormalities in the abdominal organs, soft tissues around the spine, etc.
Spinal radiographs are performed to assess the vertebrae, the disks, and the spinal canal, and are usually performed under heavy sedation or general anesthesia.
Serology may be performed for infectious diseases that can secondarily affect the spine, such as feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus.
If a spinal or vertebral problem is suspected or identified from results of the initial tests, then further procedures may be necessary to define the disease and formulate a treatment plan. Such procedures include advanced imaging techniques, such as the following:
Myelography involves the insertion of a dye that shows up white on x-rays, into the area around the spine cord. Myelography is performed under general anesthesia via a spinal tap, and is useful in diagnosing spinal cord trauma and certain types of cancer of the spine.
Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analysis may be recommended to search for certain inflammatory or infectious disorders, especially meningitis. The fluid is retrieved at the time of a spinal tap.
Computed tomography (CT scan) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be indicated in selected cases.
Electromyelography (EMG) and muscle biopsy may be considered in cases of suspected muscle disorders.
Treatment of Neck and Back Pain in Cats
Treatment varies widely for patients with back or neck pain, depending upon the nature of the disease and the extent of the tissues involved. It is important to realize that with the exception of strict rest, there is very little that owners can do symptomatically for these patients at home. It is important for your veterinarian to identify a specific cause, then appropriate treatment plans can be devised for each animal.
Depending on the severity of signs, treatment may be provided on an outpatient basis or may necessitate hospitalization. Treatments may involve medication, surgery or both.
Medical management may include anti-inflammatory agents (such as corticosteroids), antibiotics, and/or chemotherapeutic agents, etc.
Surgical intervention may be recommended in cases of spinal trauma, paralysis, infections of the disks or vertebrae, and cancer in or around the spinal cord.