Pyothorax in Cats

Overview of Pyothorax in Cats

Pyothorax is an infection of the chest cavity generally caused by bacteria, although less commonly it may be due to other organisms, such as viruses or fungi. The infection causes fluid to accumulate in the chest cavity – the space between the lungs and the body wall – which causes difficulty breathing. This is a serious condition and is often fatal if not treated promptly and aggressively.

The route by which the thoracic cavity becomes infected is often not apparent and there are numerous ways that infection can occur in the chest cavity.

Causes of Pyothorax in Cats

There is usually a fairly long gap between the incident that caused the infection and the development of clinical signs. When the infection is caused by an animal bite, the wound has often healed and the owner has forgotten about it by the time that the pet becomes ill.

In cats, pyothorax is often due to bite wounds associated with fighting other cats; thus, young male cats are at increased risk for this disease.

What to Watch For

In some cases, despite aggressive treatment, pyothorax can be fatal.

Diagnosis of Pyothorax in Cats

Diagnostic tests are needed to determine why your pet is having difficulty breathing and to determine if there is an underlying cause. If your pet is diagnosed with pyothorax, he will require veterinary care. Your veterinarian’s efforts will be directed at three things:

Diagnostic tests that your veterinarian may wish to perform include:

Most animals tolerate chest taps and the procedure can be done without any sedation, but occasionally your veterinarian may need to give your pet some sedation or even general anesthesia in order to remove the fluid.

Treatment of Pyothorax in Cats

Home Care and Prevention

Administer all medications that your veterinarian prescribes until they are gone. Observe your pet closely for evidence of difficulty breathing. If he becomes lethargic or stops eating, contact your veterinarian immediately.

Do not allow your pet to fight with other animals. If you notice a wound on the chest wall, have your veterinarian examine it. Take note of any wounds so that if your pet develops a problem later you can point it out to your veterinarian.

Do not feed your pet bones or other hard objects that might become lodged in the esophagus and cause perforation.

There is very little else that you can do to prevent your animal from developing pyothorax, but being alert to the signs will allow the condition to be diagnosed earlier and may allow treatment to be more effective.

In-depth Information on Pyothorax in Cats

Pyothorax is a general term that denotes infection of the pleural cavity, which is the space between the lungs and the body wall. There are multiple different types of organisms that can cause pyothorax including bacteria, viruses and fungi.

Diagnosis In-depth

Diagnostic tests will be performed to:

To determine is fluid is present:

To confirm that the fluid is infected

To determine if there is an underlying disease

Treatment In-depth

Treatment of pyothorax may require medical management alone or in combination with surgery, depending on the underlying cause.

Medical Management

Surgical Management

Home Care of Cats with Pyothorax

Optimal treatment for your pet requires a combination of home and professional veterinary care. Follow-up can be critical, especially if your pet does not rapidly improve.