The cocker spaniel is a very popular pet, available in two distinct versions. The English cocker is more often used to hunt and has a little more pleasant disposition than the slightly smaller American cocker. The cocker spaniel is often ranked as one of the top dog breeds and is the smallest member of the sporting dog family and was accepted by the American Kennel Club as a separate breed in 1946
History and Origin
Spaniels of all kinds have been faithful hunting companions for centuries. They are a large family of dogs and mentioned in literature as far back as the mid 1300s. Over time, the spaniel family was divided into land spaniels and water spaniels. In the middle of the 19th century, breeders began to pay more attention to standardizing and developing specific breed lines in the land spaniel group. Eventually, the English cocker line and English toy spaniel line were begun.
Over time, the English cocker slowly evolved somewhat differently than the original cocker in size, shape and color. In 1946, the cocker spaniel was officially divided into two separate breeds; the American cocker spaniel and English cocker spaniel, both recognized by the AKC.
The name cocker is disputed and some feel that the name refers to the breeds proficiency as a hunter of woodcocks.
The cocker spaniel is a medium-sized handsome dog. The head is round with a smooth forehead. The muzzle is broad, the jaws square and the ears hang long. The tail is often docked around the time of birth.
The hair coat is one of the most distinguishable characteristics. It is silky, slightly wavy and of medium length and has a thick undercoat that protects them from cold and damp weather. The cocker comes in a variety of colors: Black, black with tan, cream, dark red, brown with tan, buff and others. Parti-color refers to a hair coat of two or more solid colors, one of which must be white.
The English cocker stands at a height of 15 to 17 inches at the shoulder and weighs 25 to 35 pounds.
Overall, the cocker spaniel is a cheerful dog that is willing to please. As with other spaniels, the cocker is energetic and needs regular exercise. If not allowed to exercise, behavioral problems often develop.
Home and Family Relations
Well suited for city or country life, the breed has natural protective instincts that make him a good watchdog. If raised with children, cockers can do well. Older cockers not exposed to children early in life tend not to tolerate their antics.
Cocker spaniels have an inherent desire to hunt and they make capable gun dogs. They can be easily trained to flush and retrieve game. Even though they are land spaniels, they can adapt to water. The English cocker is used as a hunter more so than the American.
In addition to hunting training, the cocker spaniel is easily trained in obedience.
Cockers should not be left alone for extended periods of time. This can lead to frustration and subsequent behavioral problems and destructiveness. With the increase in popularity of the cocker spaniel, indiscriminate breeding practices have resulted in temperament problems. Some are nervous and can be aggressive toward strangers.
Due to their long hair coat, the cocker must be groomed frequently.
Common Diseases and Disorders
Although these occur infrequently, the following disorders have also been reported:
The cocker spaniel has an average life span of approximately 14 to 16 years.
We realize that each dog is unique and may display other characteristics. This profile provides generally accepted breed information only.