Inter-Dog Dominance Aggression
Dealing with Dominance Aggression Between Dogs
Dogs fight for a number of different reasons, but quests for dominance often underlie much of the sparring. Aggressive incidents may be isolated to one or two specific situations, such as competition over specific resources or space guarding issues. Hierarchical disputes are more common among dogs of the same sex and fights between two females are typically more vicious. Any breed can develop such hierarchical disputes as this goes hand in hand with “pack” mentality, but it may be more difficult to maintain stable hierarchies with terrier breeds and other breeds that have been selected to work independently.
Why Dogs Fight
Dogs in the same household will fight if they are near equal in social status. This can occur in two distinct situations.
- Hierarchical disputes may arise if there is a change in dominance because the original top ranking dog loses status as he weakens with age or when a younger dog with a desire for a higher status reaches social maturity (18 months to 3 years of age) and begins to challenge the incumbent. Social relationships may also be affected when a new dog is introduced to the social group or when a dog is reunited with his social group following a period of absence. Under all of these circumstances, disputes are usually not life threatening and a new hierarchy will be established within a few weeks as long as the owners do not intervene.
- Alliance aggression is more common. This occurs when the owner interferes with the establishment of a stable social hierarchy because he/she continually protects the submissive dog and punishes the top-ranking dog. Such misguided owner alliance effectively lowers the rank of the dominant dog and elevates the status of the submissive dog, which perpetuates and exacerbates the competition between the dogs.
Aggression due to owner alliance issues can be very dangerous and may persist for some time. The fights are often vicious and result in injury to one or both dogs. In alliance situations, the dogs generally fight only in the owner’s presence, but can peacefully cohabitate in the owner’s absence.
In most cases, both dogs are less respectful than they should be to the owner since the presence of a dominant individual within the social group tends to suppress aggression between other pack members.
Unfortunately, some dogs are socially dysfunctional and may never integrate well in a canine social group. In particular, dogs that have not received appropriate social contact with other dogs during their sensitive period of social development may never acclimate well to other dogs.
Diagnosis of Dominance Aggression
A complete physical examination is recommended to rule out any underlying medical condition that may be contributing to the dog’s aggressive behavior. If the dog receives a clean bill of health, a behavior specialist can provide a diagnosis and an appropriate treatment plan.
Therapy for Dog Dominance Aggression
- Neutering may reduce aggression between dogs in the household since some aggression may be hormonally based.
- The owner must establish a strong leadership role over all dogs in the household via a non-confrontational dominance program. Owner leadership is essential for safely establishing and maintaining a stable social hierarchy.
- It is important to avoid further confrontations between the dogs to prevent reinforcement of the learned component of aggression. Owners need to identify all sources of conflict and competition and change their management strategy so that they can prevent future altercations between the dogs.
- The owner must determine which dog is most likely to achieve and maintain a dominant status and reinforce his higher ranking position by ensuring that he is the first to receive access to all resources. The second ranking dog should be obliged to follow. This decision is based on the age, tenure, health, and temperament of the two dogs. In general, the elder, incumbent dog is the one to support (“senior support program”) and this approach is usually the best one when setting out to correct such problems.
- In the event that the dogs begin to compete over a resource, the subordinate dog should be removed from the situation while the top ranking dog remains in the company of the owners.
- Verbal correction directed towards the subordinate may be effective at curbing aggression when the subordinate does not readily defer to the dominant dog’s initiative.
- If fighting is severe, the dogs may need to be separated and gradually reintroduced using systematic desensitization and counter-conditioning training methods.
- In some instances, pharmacological therapy can facilitate the reintroduction of feuding dogs. Anxiety-reducing drugs or antidepressants are the medications of choice.
- The usual background adjustments of providing appropriate daily aerobic exercise, an all-natural non-performance diet and regular daily obedience training sessions are highly recommended.
- Training the dogs to wear a head halter or body harness with trailing leashes and a basket muzzle will increase the owner’s level of control and safety when the dogs are together.
- For safety reasons, it may become necessary to confine the dogs to crates or separate rooms. They should not be allowed to have visual contact when confined if they continue to threaten each other. This may increase their arousal levels thus perpetuating and possibly exacerbating their aggression towards one another.
- Adopting a dog whose temperament is compatible with the personality of your other dog is of the utmost importance in terms of avoiding this problem. Some dogs (individuals and particular breeds) may be genetically predisposed to developing a dominant temperament so it is important that you research the breed as well as the breed lines before selecting a canine companion to join your canine pack. Establishing your role as the benevolent leader early on in your relationship with a new puppy is essential. Obedience training, early socialization, management styles that reduce conflict between the dogs, and proper introductions, all help promote positive social integration. It is often easier to introduce dogs of the opposite sex.
Information In-depth on Inter-Dog Dominance Aggression
Dogs fight for a number of different reasons but dominance, in one form or another, underlies much of this feuding. When a couple of unfamiliar dogs encounter each other there is a good deal of mutual investigation that occurs between the two dogs before either can fully relax in the other’s presence. During this investigational stage, all five senses are utilized to gather information about the competition and a variable amount of posturing goes on as the dogs transmit their comfort level toward each other through the medium of body language.
If two easygoing dogs meet, there is rarely a problem. If one dog is clearly dominant over another, and the other dog accepts his dominance, again there is no real reason for concern. The more dominant dog transmits his status to the other by certain characteristic posturing and expressions. Perhaps the most well known signal is the dominant dog’s stare. Other signals of dominance include tensing of muscles, erect ears, tail held at or above horizontal, and the head and neck held high. The approach of the dominant dog is often toward the other dog’s flank, and upon reaching it, he may rest his chin upon the other dog’s back almost daring him to react.
A clearly subordinate dog will defer to a show of force by averting his eyes, shrinking down to make himself small, holding his tail either low or tucked between his legs, and may even squat and urinate or roll over to expose his belly in extreme situations. At the instant the dominant dog has received the signal of deference, he immediately stops posturing and may start playing with the other dog.
Problems arise when two dogs of near equal dominant status meet and the true leader is not immediately apparent. In signaling dominance, dogs may stand parallel to each other, facing the opposite direction, each with his head resting on the other’s rump and each with his tail raised like a flag. Next may come a low growl, lip lift, snap, or even bite. If neither dog concedes, a dogfight will ensue, and winner takes all.
In an entirely appropriate battle, the dog that eventually emerges as the dominant individual immediately accepts the underdog’s concession. The dominant dog may laud his victory for a few seconds before strutting off but will usually not sustain or escalate his attack under these circumstances. Some dogs, however, are not savvy regarding canine etiquette and will continue to attack despite the other dog’s obvious submission. Such dogs usually have a checkered history of improper socialization with other dogs or have had adverse experiences with similarly dysfunctional dogs in the past.
A dominant dog may behave well in the presence of nine out of ten other dogs because the others either defer or are even more dominant. Occasionally, however, such a dog will encounter another dog of almost identical dominance status and that’s when the trouble begins. As two owners stand chatting, not paying much attention to their dogs, a fight may suddenly break out.
Of course, there are many different circumstances in which dominance aggression may be displayed; however, they usually fall into the same categories as dominance aggression directed towards people. The first is in protection of a valued object or person, the second is in response to another’s challenging postures or gestures (or even frank attack), and finally there is space guarding and/or territoriality. The dog’s mood and motivation have a lot to do with whether he reacts in a particular circumstance. Both internal and external factors determine the dog’s final reaction. Two internal factors are sex hormones and the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Internal Factors Affecting Dog Aggression
When male or female sex hormone levels are high, aggression is more likely. When serotonin levels in the brain are high, aggression is less likely. Castrating a male dog eliminates the supply of testosterone from the testes, and testosterone levels fall to near zero within hours. At the same time, brain serotonin levels rise, because testosterone is suppressed by testosterone. The result: a less aggressive dog especially as far as inter-male dominance aggression is concerned. In fact, aggression between males is substantially reduced by castration in two out of three cases. But castration is no panacea, as the dog’s temperament, residual maleness, and learning all have some bearing.
Another internal factor that influences aggression is the hormonal change that occurs following parturition. When a bitch has had puppies, her aggression level, particularly when it comes to protection of her pups, will be raised. The elevation in aggression (so called maternal aggression) exactly parallels the rise and fall of the lactational hormone, prolactin.
One last internal factor that influences the propensity for dominance-related behaviors is elevation in catecholamines (the fight or flight hormones). Increases in these neurotransmitters lower the threshold for impulsivity and aggression.
External Factors Affecting Dog Aggression
External factors include the location of an encounter, the nature of the combatant, and the presence of people, other dogs, or certain chattels. Dominant dogs will guard their own space (space guarding), exhibit territorial displays of barking when another dog approaches them on their own patch, and will be more likely to be aggressive if the transgressor is of near equal dominance status. People and other dogs can influence a dominant dog’s confidence and combativeness, but in the presence of strong leaders (either people or other dogs) aggression is less likely. Thus, for owners of dominant dogs, increased leadership via a “Nothing in Life is Free” leadership program is invaluable in helping curb the dog’s dominance aggressive overtures towards other dogs.
Canine Sibling Rivalry
Another common form of dominance-related inter-dog aggression is known as sibling rivalry. Sibling rivalry refers to situations in which two or more dogs in the same household fight. The fights may start out as snarling and growling over space or other resources. If left unchecked, serious fighting can ensue resulting in injury or even death.
Fighting occurs because the dogs have not established a stable dominance hierarchy. Dogs have no sense of equality, so one must always be the leader. This is often a difficult concept for owners to grasp. They prefer to treat their dogs as equals and work to even out disputes. But well-meaning intervention only serves to fuel continued fighting between the dogs. Fights occur between dogs of near equal dominance and rarely, if ever, between a very dominant dog and a submissive dog because the latter readily defers. There are two varieties of sibling rivalry that are commonly seen.
- Type 1. This is a simple dominance struggle between two dogs, siblings or not, that live in the same household. Confrontations often arise when one dog reaches social maturity (18 months to 3 years of age) and begins to challenge an older, more dominant dog’s rank. Alternatively, confrontations may occur when an older dog becomes ill and begins to lose ground as the leader. Under these circumstances, a previously subordinate dog may begin to challenge his former leader and attempt to usurp his social position. This type of aggression will usually resolve in fairly short order (2-3 weeks) as long as people do not interfere with what is the course of nature.
- Type 2. The second and much more common type of sibling rivalry is what is referred to as alliance aggression. This unfortunate situation is man-made and occurs when humans interfere with dominance/deference struggles between dogs in the same household. The typical human reaction is to support the subordinate, which ensures that dominance is not established and fighting continues. By supporting the underdog, the owners increase the would-be subordinate dog’s social status, and by chastising the more dominant dog they will effectively weaken his position. This ensures that near equal dominance status is maintained and the fighting will continue. These fights can be much more dangerous (resulting in severe injury) and persist for a considerable length of time. Typically, the dogs fight only in the presence of the owner and it is the owner’s comings and goings that precipitate the violence.
Diagnosis In-depth on Dog Dominance Aggression
- A complete physical examination is recommended to rule out any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to your dog’s aggressive behavior. If there are no underlying medical causes for the aggression, a behavior specialist can help supply an appropriate treatment plan.
Therapy for Sibling Rivalry in Dogs
In the early stages of this condition when fighting is infrequent and of a minor nature, it is possible to reverse the process and establish a stable dominance order by following the program outlined below.
- Elevate the owner’s leadership status. Enforce a dominance control program with both dogs so that the owner, as the clear leader, has full control over both dogs. This requires implementing a non-confrontational behavior modification program whereby the owner makes the dog earn every resource he needs or desires by following a command.
- Avoid further confrontations. To avoid reinforcing the learned component of aggression, it is essential that owners attempt to prevent any further aggressive episodes between their dogs. Toys and food may need to be removed when the dogs are together and access to highly emotional areas (thresholds, kitchens, bedrooms) may need to be restricted. In severe cases, complete separation of the dogs may be necessary for a while.
- Help establish a stable social hierarchy. To do this, owners should consistently support the more dominant dog in his rightful social position. The only difficulty comes in determining which of the two dogs should be dominant and this is not always an easy endeavor. Factors that come in to play are temperament, age, length of time in the household, size, and breed. If there is any doubt about which dog is dominant, it is probably best to engage a senior support program initially. This is a program in which the elder incumbent dog is supported over a newcomer (especially if the challenger is a puppy that has just reached puberty and has begun to challenge the more senior dog’s rank). Once it has been decided which dog to support, that dog should be first in everything and the other dog should be obliged to follow. The dominant dog should be fed first, petted first, praised first, allowed through doorways first, exercised first and played with before the other dog.
If this causes problems, the more subordinate dog may have to be put into a crate or tethered so that he is compelled to watch the owner interact freely with the more dominant dog.
- Safety and reinforcement. Because treatment is not immediately effective and may take three or four months, it is a good idea to have both dogs wear body harnesses or head halters and trailing leads around the house. This way, fights can be broken up safely by applying gentle traction to the leads to keep the dogs just far enough apart that they cannot injure each other. The owner should hold the dogs apart in this way until they calm down. Following a fight, or near fight, the dominant dog should be praised, petted and played with while the subordinate dog is ignored or taken out of the area for a time out.
- Both dogs should be safely restrained on leash. Begin the sessions in “neutral territories” i.e. areas where competition for resources is least likely to occur.
- The number one dog should be relaxed and happy as you present the subordinate dog.
- The number two ranking dog should simply appear and disappear BEFORE the number one dog has an opportunity to react negatively to his presence.
- Reward both dogs with praise and food treats for remaining relaxed. Then have the number two dog step in for a few more seconds, and then step out. Continue this process for no longer than 15 minutes (\~12-15 trials total) as long as both dogs remain relaxed. At no time should either dog become aroused. Both dogs should be required to focus on their handlers and should be focused on their rewards for good behavior. In time, they will learn to associate each other’s presence with positive experiences.
- If after 2 weeks of practicing these exercises both dogs appear relaxed in each other’s company, the owner may progress to having the dogs in the same room with leads attached to their halters/harnesses.
- If the dogs can remain relaxed in each others presence for another 2 weeks, it may be possible to allow them to engage in supervised interactions or play if they are so inclined. This entire timetable is tentative depending on the dogs’ response to each stage of the program.
Reintroduction and counterconditioning techniques require patience and a complete understanding of each dog’s response to the other. This is a gradual process and rushing any phase of the program can result in failure to achieve the desired goal.
During the program, if the dominant dog looks at the second ranking dog and the latter averts his gaze, reward both dogs profusely. The act of withdrawing eye contact indicates a willingness to submit rather than fight. Once the social hierarchy (owner -> dog 1-> dog 2) is established, the owner may be able to return to more normal relations with the dogs. However, the hierarchical structure must always be reinforced with both dogs deferring to the owner and dog number one receiving access to all resources prior to the second ranking dog and so on.
Medication for Dogs with Dominance Aggression
Pharmacologic treatment is sometimes necessary to assist in reintroducing a pair of feuding dogs. Anxiety-reducing drugs or antidepressants are the medications of choice. Buspirone (BuSpar®) or fluoxetine (Prozac®) are most frequently employed for this purpose. Both drugs tend to decrease aggression, buspirone perhaps by virtue of its anxiety-reducing effect and fluoxetine by stabilizing the dog’s mood and reducing his impulsivity. If one dog only is to be treated, it is usually best to treat the aggressor.