Although some owners appreciate their dog’s warning barks and guarding behavior, territorial aggression can be embarrassing for an owner and potentially dangerous to human and/or canine visitors to the property. When dogs show excessive aggression to other dogs on their home turf but do not respond aggressively to unfamiliar dogs on neutral territory, territorial aggression is the likely diagnosis. There are two different motivations for territorial behavior: dominance or fear/anxiety.
Territorial Dominance Aggression in Dogs
True territorial aggression is like dominance aggression, except on a larger scale. While dominance aggression expresses itself between individuals pack members, and serves a “cohesive” function in the pack, territorial aggression is outwardly directed and its function is “dispersive.” With territorial aggression, the resources guarded are those within certain physical boundaries – the territory – and the objects of the aggression are unwelcome visitors to that territory. The shelter and food that the territory provides and the incumbent society, the pack, must be defended against infiltrators and usurpers. In the wild, responsibility for this function rests squarely with more dominant members of the pack. It is their duty to alert the others and repel interlopers, as the need arises.
Similar behavior occurs in domestic dogs of a dominant disposition, though the circumstances are somewhat different. First of all, the pack comprises members of their human family as well as other dogs. Secondly, the territory that they protect includes the house and yard plus areas like sidewalks that the dogs regularly patrol and vehicles in which they ride. Finally, these dogs do not just defend the territory against canine invaders: They also guard against unwelcome human visitors. See Territorial Aggression toward People.
As one Border collie herding trainer once said, “Dogs are territorial animals. If you allow them to live in your home but fail to make it absolutely clear that you are the leader, they will take over the territory, protecting it against all comers, and will condescend to let you live there because you supply their food.” Although an extreme view, it makes the point. Dogs that are overly dominant, both in absolute terms or with respect to their human family members, can provide a serious obstacle for canine and human visitors to their territory.
Treatment for dominance-related territorial aggression toward other dogs is best accomplished through strong leadership on the part of the owner (e.g. the owner should engage a leadership program) and they should employ effective physical methods of control.
Territorial/Fear Aggression in Dogs
Not all dogs that display apparent territorial aggression toward other dogs have a dominant disposition; at least, dominance may not be the driving force behind their aggressive displays. Instead, the dogs may be anxious by nature or have been undersocialized and poorly trained as youngsters. Their aggression is designed to isolate them from another dog’s approach. Although they may not be particularly comfortable around other dogs when away from their territory, once home they have enough confidence to openly express their dislikes. Thus, they only act aggressively toward other dogs in the familiar surroundings because that’s where they have more assurance. We refer to this type of aggression as territorial/fear aggression.
Consider these observations on territorial/fear aggression:
The only distinguishing characteristic between territorial/fear aggression and overt fear aggression is the level of confidence that the dog possesses. Fear aggressive dogs have enough confidence to be aggressive to other dogs on or off their own territory, i.e. they display a higher level of dominance. Territorial fear aggressive dogs have a low level of dominance, permitting the expression of fear aggression only on the home turf or from within the safety of the owner’s vehicle