Overview of Ear Tumors in Dogs
Ear tumors are growths associated with the dog’s ear and the most common include ceruminous gland adenoma or adenocarcinoma, sebaceous gland tumor and basal cell tumor. Depending on the tumor type there may or may not be an underlying cause. Chronic inflammation may predispose tumor formation.
Ceruminous gland adenocarcinoma. These tumors are rare, but they are the most common malignant tumor of the ear canal of dogs, especially cocker spaniels. They generally affect middle aged to older dogs with no sex predilection
Basal cell tumor. These tumors generally affect middle aged to older dogs and are most common in cocker spaniels and poodles.
Sebaceous gland tumors. They are more common in middle-aged to older dogs than cats, with no sex predilection. They generally affect spaniel breeds.
What to Watch For
Early in the illness, many dogs are have no clinical signs, and tumors are often incidental findings.
Skin changes on the ear
Crusts, ulcers or proliferative (excessive growth) tissue
Large growths filling the ear canal
Vestibular (balance) signs
Diagnosis of Possible Ear Tumors in Dogs
Baseline tests, to include a complete blood count (CBC), biochemical profile, and urinalysis, are usually within normal limits.
Thoracic (chest) radiographs (X-rays) should be taken to rule out lung metastasis (spread).
Skull radiographs may be helpful in evaluating invasiveness or surrounding tissue involvement of tumors associated with the ear canal.
CT scan may be helpful in accessing extent of tumor and is necessary prior to radiation therapy.
Biopsy is necessary for a definitive diagnosis.
Treatment of Canine Ear Tumors
The treatment depends on the tumor type, size, and location. Surgical resection or removal is the treatment of choice.
Surgical debulking, in which as much of the tumor as possible is removed
Cryosurgery, which is destruction of tissue by application of extreme cold
Hyperthermia, which is destruction of tissue by application of extreme heat
Radiation therapy in large or incompletely excised masses (ceruminous gland adenocarcinoma)
Home Care and Prevention
Follow all instructions given to you by your veterinarian. If your dog has a recurrence of signs, contact your veterinarian at once. Prognosis varies depending on the type, location, size, and ability to remove the tumor surgically.
Preventing ear tumors can be difficult. Prompt treatment of chronic ear problems can help.