Overview of Radial and Ulnar Fractures in Dogs
The radius and ulna are the two bones that comprise the forearm. Fractures of these bones are frequently encountered in veterinary medicine. Because of the conformation of the forearm, both bones, the radius and ulna, usually fracture at the same time.
These fractures are usually the result of trauma, but can be caused by disease of the bone itself. These fractures can occur in an immature bone (one that has not finished growing), or in a mature one, can be “open” or “closed” and can be “simple” or “comminuted.” They can also involve either the carpus (wrist) or elbow joints.
Depending on the nature of the fracture and the age of the animal, different methods of repair may be indicated for each situation. Radius and ulna fractures can have serious complications if not repaired, or if the repair fails, and can result in developmental abnormalities of the leg if the animal is immature when the injury occurred.
What to Watch For
Signs of radial or ulnar fractures in dogs may include:
Diagnosis of Fracture of the Radius and Ulna in Dogs
A thorough physical examination is important to determine if fractures are present and to determine if there are other injuries. No laboratory tests are required to make the diagnosis, but your veterinarian may recommend the following:
Treatment of Fracture of the Radius and Ulna in Dogs
Emergency care for concurrent problems caused by the trauma is the most important part of treatment. After stabilization, additional treatment may include:
Home Care and Prevention
Bring the animal to the veterinarian as soon as possible after any trauma for immediate attention. Try to prevent your pet from walking or moving too much. Prompt veterinary treatment is recommended. Do not attempt to place a splint or bandage on the leg unless there is profuse bleeding.
After surgical repair of the fracture, the animal must be kept restricted from activity for several weeks and the skin incision should be monitored while healing. A recheck with your veterinarian will occur in several weeks to evaluate how the bones are healing (with new radiographs), to monitor the animal’s progress, and to make sure it is safe to increase the animal’s activity level.
Many traumatic events are true accidents and thus unavoidable. Small dogs should be limited from jumping from heights. If these dogs are allowed on the furniture, ramps or stairs may allow these dogs to get up and down without risk of injury. Avoid the chance for motor vehicle trauma by not allowing your dog to roam.
In-depth Information on Radius and Ulnar Fractures in Dogs
Radius and ulna fractures are common and motor vehicle trauma is the most frequent cause. These injured animals tend to be young, non-neutered males who roam away from home and get hit by a car. Animals of both sexes and of any age are susceptible to this type of trauma if not kept restrained. Small dogs (e.g. Italian greyhound) tend to be especially susceptible to these types of fractures with relatively minor trauma, like jumping off a bed
Animals can develop non-traumatic fractures of the radius or ulna when certain disease conditions exist. These fractures, also known as “pathologic fractures,”can occur if the animal is malnourished, has a systemic illness such as kidney disease, has an endocrine disorder such as hyperparathyroidism, has a bone infection (osteomyelitis) or has cancer of the bone.
Immature bones have growth plates (physes) that are still “open” and growing. These regions of the young bone are susceptible to damage caused by the trauma that can result in premature “closure.” Due to the interrelationship between the two bones of the forearm during growth, premature closure of one growth plate before maturity can cause abnormal curvature of the bones and joint incongruities. This can result in future pain and lameness. The most common type of premature growth plate closure occurs in the distal physis of the ulna (the end of the bone near the wrist). This causes forward bowing of the forearm with lateral (outward) deviation of the carpus. Abnormalities can also occur in the elbow secondary to this type of growth plate injury.
Depending on the location and amount of energy of each particular trauma, fractures can occur in various portions of the bone. Most fractures involve the proximal, midportion or distal diaphysis (shaft) of the bones. Sometimes fracture of the ulna can occur in combination with a luxation (dislocation) of the radius at the elbow instead of a fracture of that bone. Uncommonly, joint fractures occur involving the surfaces of the elbow joint or wrist.
Fractures of the diaphysis of the radius and ulna can be classified as “open” or “closed” depending on whether the skin surface has been damaged during the injury. Open fractures have a greater chance of getting infected and may have more complications than closed fractures.
As with all fractures, fractures of the radius and ulna can also be classified as “simple” if each bone breaks into two pieces or “comminuted” if there are multiple pieces.
Each case of antebrachial fracture needs to be evaluated in its entirety (age of animal, severity of the fracture, experience of the surgeon and financial concerns of the owner) to determine the most appropriate and best form of treatment.
Inappropriate case management, inadequate surgical stabilization or poor aftercare can lead to complications, such as non-unions (fractures that will not heal), malunions (fractures that heal in an abnormal direction or orientation), osteomyelitis (bone infection), arthritis or a non-functional leg.