Overview of Giardia in Dogs
Giardia is a protozoan parasite found all over the world. It infects humans, many domestic animals and birds. Giardia lives in the intestinal tract and infection may be asymptomatic or can result in gastrointestinal symptoms.
Giardia infections (called Giardiasis) show no gender or breed predilection but are most common in young animals and in animals under close confinement, such as those in kennels, animal shelters and pet stores.
Most cases of Giardia infection in humans arise from person-to-person contact or from contaminated water, but animals do harbor strains of Giardia that are infectious to humans and animal-to-human transmission theoretically is possible.
What to Watch For
Diagnosis of Canine Giardia
Veterinary care should include diagnostic tests and subsequent recommendations. Diagnostic tests are needed to recognize Giardiasis and exclude other diseases. Tests may include:
Treatment of Canine Giardia
Treatment for pets with Giardia infection may include one or more of the following drugs:
Home Care and Prevention
Administer as directed all medications prescribed by your veterinarian. All of the prescribed medication should be given to insure elimination of the infection. A high-fiber diet may improve stool consistency in pets with diarrhea associated with Giardia infection.
Decontamination of the environment is an important part of preventing infection. In multiple-dog households and in situations in which animals are under close confinement (e.g. kennels, animal shelters, pet stores), proper sanitation is crucial to prevent cross-contamination from one animal to another. All fecal material must be removed from cages, runs and yards. Kennels must be cleaned with appropriate disinfectants and totally dried before allowing pets access to them.
All animals should be treated with appropriate medication before being introduced into a multiple-animal environment.
Bathing animals before introducing them into an uncontaminated environment allows for removal of feces and infective cysts from the hair coat.
Pet owners should remove feces from the yard, avoid allowing their dog to drink from streams and lakes, and regularly bath the animal to remove any feces from the hair coat.
A vaccine designed to aid in the prevention of disease caused by Giardia recently has been developed (GiardiaVax®).
Information In-Depth on Giardia in Dogs
The protozoan parasite Giardia occurs in two forms. The active (motile) form that lives and multiplies in the intestinal tract is called a “trophozoite.” It can be recognized under the microscope by its characteristic appearance, which looks somewhat like a monkey face with two eyes and a nose. The trophozoite only lives in the intestine and cannot survive in the environment for any significant length of time. The other form is called a cyst and is the infective form of the parasite. Each cyst contains two completely formed trophozoites inside of it. Cysts can remain viable in the environment for many months and can cause infection if conditions are cool and moist.
Dogs are infected by ingesting cysts in the environment. Most infections arise from contaminated water, such as puddles, streams, lakes, shallow wells and water contaminated by feces.
Giardia causes disease by damaging the small intestine, which leads to maldigestion (inability to break down nutrients properly) and malabsorption (inability to properly absorb digested nutrients). Giardia also increases intestinal motility, thus decreasing the amount of time the intestine can digest and absorb nutrients. Increased intestinal motility may be manifested by flatulence (excessive gas production) and diarrhea.
The most common symptom of Giardia infection is diarrhea but there are many other causes of diarrhea. Some examples include: