Overview of Histoplasmosis in Dogs
Histoplasmosis is a non-contagious fungal infection of dogs, cats, other domestic and non-domestic animals, and humans. It is caused by inhalation of a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum carried on dust with a primary infection in the lung.
In dogs, evidence suggests that prolonged exposure to high levels of Histoplasma organisms increase the risk of contracting the disease. Young age is a risk factor, as well as breed and sex: a large study found an increased risk in pointers, weimaraners, and Brittanys. It is also seen more frequently in males, with the risk being 1.2 times that seen in females.
The impact of the disease on a particular dog is significant; treatment is expensive and prolonged, and the prognosis is poor.
Watch to Watch For
Symptoms of histoplasmosis in dogs may include:
Diagnosis of Histoplasmosis in Dogs
A definitive diagnosis of histoplasmosis requires detecting Histoplasma organisms in the tissues of cats and dogs showing clinical signs compatible with the disease. Several other tests are also recommended to gather information that supports a diagnosis of histoplasmosis.
Treatment of Histoplasmosis in Dogs
Home Care and Prevention
Provide good nutrition and administer all medications as prescribed.
No specific preventive measures exist regarding histoplasmosis.
In-depth Information on Canine Histoplasmosis
Histoplasmosis is a non-contagious infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The organism responsible for the disorder is a soil fungus that is widely distributed in the Midwestern and southern United States, especially in river valleys and plains. Within these endemic areas, some locales are more heavily contaminated with Histoplasma organisms than others.
In many instances, these variations have been correlated with proximity to bird habitats, which are often heavily contaminated because bird droppings serve as a good medium for the organism. Birds are not infected by the Histoplasma organism, although they can carry the organism on their feathers and spread the disease in this manner. Bat habitats can also be heavily contaminated with the organism, as bat guano is an excellent medium for Histoplasma growth. Unlike birds, bats can become infected with the organism.
Infection occurs when spores in the air are inhaled. The spores go to the lungs and cause infection of cells deep in the lungs. Most dogs show a clinically unapparent pulmonary infection; the organism has infected the lungs, yet the dog shows no signs of being ill.
Occasionally, dogs with pulmonary histoplasmosis shows signs of lung infection, such as fever, labored breathing, and coughing. The lung infection usually turns out to be benign and self limiting. If the unapparent respiratory infection extends and persists beyond the lungs and becomes systemic, a clinically apparent, often devastating form of the disease may develop. This has been referred to as “disseminated histoplasmosis,” and it carries a guarded or even grave prognosis.
It is uncommon for a clinically unapparent Histoplasma infection to disseminate from the lungs. When this happens, a large number of organs and body systems may be affected. In dogs, the organs most often involved are the lungs, intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen and bone marrow. Systemic signs of illness such as depression, fever, and anorexia are common. The disseminated infection in dogs most often results in chronic diarrhea, intestinal blood loss, anemia, and weight loss. In a few dogs, infection of the bones, eyes, skin, and central nervous system may occur.
The factors that predispose particular dogs to histoplasmosis are not fully understood. In people, exposure to a large amount of the organism, a suppressed immune system, as in chemotherapy or HIV infection, or exposure at a young age or old age are believed to predispose individuals to disseminated infection. There is evidence suggesting that prolonged exposure to high levels of the organism may increase the risk of disease.
Administration of immunosuppressive drugs has been correlated with a worsening of disease in dogs. Exposure to the organism at a young age is a predisposing factor; most affected dogs are less than three years old. Breed and sex are considered as possible predisposing factors in dogs, with pointers, Weimaraners, and Brittanys reported to be more susceptible, and male dogs being 1.2 times as likely to become infected as females.
In-depth Information on Diagnosis
In-depth Information on Therapy
Treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis is difficult. It requires the use of antifungal agents and supportive therapy like adequate nutrition, hydration, and control of secondary bacterial infections.
Follow-up Care for Dogs with Histoplasmosis
Optimal treatment for your pet requires a combination of home and professional veterinary care. Follow-up can be critical, especially if your dog does not rapidly improve.
Administer all prescribed medications as directed. Alert your veterinarian if you are experiencing problems treating your dog.
The prognosis for dogs with disseminated histoplasmosis is guarded. Treatment is frequently unrewarding because the patients are often quite debilitated at the time of diagnosis, and the disease may already be fairly widespread. Newer antifungal drugs have improved the success rate of treatment.