Overview of Canine Joint Injury
Joint injury is a traumatic injury to the structures within or surrounding the joint. The joint structures include: the articular cartilage, which is the cartilage that covers the bone within the joint; the joint capsule and synovial membrane, which is the tissue that surrounds the joint space; tendons and ligaments; and the synovial (joint) fluid. Trauma to any of these structures may result in joint injury.
Many times the injury is due to blunt trauma. This may cause tissue inflammation, swelling or more severe articular, or joint, damage. Pets hit by automobiles commonly experience joint injury.
Injuries that penetrate into the joint usually result in a joint infection. Bite wounds are a common cause. Exercise or even routine activity, such as running or jumping, can occasionally cause cartilage or ligament injury, often without any observed traumatic event. The most common of this type of injury is a cranial cruciate injury.
Severe trauma to the joint may lead to a fracture of the physis, which is that part of the bone next to the joint. Physeal fractures may be difficult to repair surgically.
Joint injuries tend to be fairly painful. Usually, only a single joint will be affected with a traumatic joint injury.
What to Watch For
Signs of joint injury in dogs may include:
Diagnosis of Joint Injury in Dogs
Treatment of Joint Injury in Dogs
An accurate diagnosis is needed for proper therapy. Pending a definitive diagnosis, certain treatments may be appropriate.
Home Care of Dogs with Joint Injury
If veterinary care is not immediately available, certain steps may be taken. Restrict any physical activity as much as possible. Acute injuries, especially if the joint is warm, may sometimes benefit from cold-water compresses. Many times this will reduce the swelling.
If a wound is present, you can clean it with warm soapy water or hydrogen peroxide. If possible, remove foreign debris and apply a light wrap.
Contact your veterinarian to see if giving a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication like aspirin would be indicated to relieve the pain until seeking veterinary care.