Overview of Canine Paraprostatic Cysts (Prostatic Cysts)
Paraprostatic cysts are fluid-filled sacs found adjacent to the prostate and are connected to the prostate by a thin stalk or tissue adhesions. The cysts are an uncommon occurrence in male dogs, and are very rare in cats. They are developmental in origin, and arise from remnants of fetal tissue (uterus masculinus) that normally degenerates during development. If this degeneration does not occur, a paraprostatic cyst might develop. The cyst can also be directly of prostatic origin.
Single or multiple cysts may be seen, and they can get very large. Animals usually only feel ill if the cysts become large enough to compress other internal organs or if they become infected. If a cyst becomes infected a prostatic abscess could develop. Some paraprostatic cysts may contain blood and these are called hemacysts.
Estrogen, either given orally or produced within the body, as in a Sertoli cell tumor, has been associated with cyst formation.
Many times paraprostatic cysts are incidental findings and animals are not symptomatic. Symptoms occur when a cyst becomes infected or it gets large enough to place pressure on other structures. The colon or urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder through the penis and out of the body, may become compressed and lead to clinical symptoms.
What to Watch For
Symptoms of Paraprostatic Cysts (Prostatic Cysts) in Dogs may include:
Occasionally an animal may experience urinary incontinence.
Diagnosis of Paraprostatic Cysts (Prostatic Cysts) in Dogs
Treatment of Paraprostatic Cysts (Prostatic Cysts) in Dogs
Home Care and Prevention
The drainage area should be watched closely, and cleaned several times a day. Recheck examinations are important to make sure there is proper healing and monitor the amount and type of discharge. If drains were placed, they are generally removed in a few weeks.
Cultures of urine and or prostatic fluid might be recommended after finishing the antibiotics if there was a secondary bacterial infection.
Unless the cyst could be completely excised (removed) recurrences are common. Abdominal ultrasounds can be done to evaluate for potential recurrence.
Neutering a dog before reaching sexual maturity may decrease the incidence of paraprostatic cyst formation.