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Overview of Canine Sacrocaudal Dysgenesis
Some dogs are born with malformations in their spine associated with the lack of a tail, a trait specifically selected for in certain breeds. The most common malformations related to this tail-less trait include hemivertebrae, spina bifida, sacrocaudal agenesis and sacrocaudal dysgenesis.
In the case of sacrocaudal dysgenesis (literally, the term means malformation of the sacrocaudal vertebrae), the congenital abnormality results in a truncated spine.
Though only rarely, this abnormality can be associated with neurological defects. Innervation of the anus, urinary bladder, hind limbs and tail can be affected, leading to potentially life-threatening lifelong incontinence.
Affected dogs include the tail-less, such as certain breeds of Bulldogs (most notably the English variety) and Old English Sheepdogs.
What to Watch For
Dogs normally show no ill effects related to this defect. Those who suffer neurologic deficits, however, will present very early on in life (within the first few weeks) with difficulty walking in the hind limbs and/or incontinence of feces or urine or both. Most neurologically affected puppies are euthanized.
It is sometimes associated with spina bifida.
Diagnosis of Sacrocaudal Dysgenesis in Dogs
Diagnosis of sacrocaudal dysgenesis is often suspected based on the history and physical examination.
Additional diagnostic tests recommended includes imaging (usually with X-rays but also with a myelogram, CT scan and/or MRI).
Treatment of Sacrocaudal Dysgenesis in Dogs
There is no known treatment for this congenital disease. It is possible, however, to adapt affected animals to carts that will allow for ambulation in the case of severe paraplegia. Any related incontinence, however, is not considered treatable and is the most common cause for euthanasia related to sacrocaudal dysgenesis.
Veterinary Cost Associated with Sacrocaudal Dysgenesis
The cost of treatment depends on the lengths an owner will go to in accommodating a neurologically abnormal animal to life in a paraplegic’s cart or other approach. Diagnosis is typically very inexpensive unless major imaging work is performed.
Prevention of Sacrocaudal Dysgenesis in Dogs
Curbing the breeding of any first-degree relatives to affected animals is a must. Parents and siblings should not be bred. Ideally, animals should not be bred for tail-lessness. This trait is fraught with unintended spinal consequences as mentioned above.
References for Sacrocaudal Dysgenesis
- Braund, K.G. (2003). “Developmental Disorders”. Clinical Neurology in Small Animals: Localization, Diagnosis and Treatment. Retrieved 2007-02-04.
- ^ a b “Congenital and Inherited Anomalies of the Nervous System: Small Animals”. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-04.