Zoonotic Diseases in Dogs

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Overview of Canine Zoonotic Diseases 

Whether you own a dog or a cat, a bird or a reptile, a rabbit or fish, you should be aware that your pet can have an effect on your health by infecting you with certain diseases. These are called zoonotic diseases, which are animal diseases that can be transmitted to humans.

You may already know about some of the more common zoonotic diseases: Lyme disease is a bacterial disease transmitted by tick bites; malaria is transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito, and bubonic plague is transmitted by rats, or rather by fleas that become infected by biting the rats. However, you should also be aware of several common zoonotic diseases that can be transmitted by your pet. Most common are:

  • Cat scratch disease – a bacterial disease caused by bacteria carried in cat saliva. The bacteria can be passed from a cat to a human through biting or scratching.
  • Psittacosis – a bacterial disease you can get by inhaling dust from dried bird droppings.
  • Rabies – a viral infection caused by a virus found in the saliva of infected animals and is transmitted to pets and humans by bites. Infected bats, raccoons, foxes, skunks, dogs or cats provide the greatest risk to humans.
  • Toxoplasmosis – a parasitic disease you can acquire from soil or other contaminated surfaces by putting your hands to your mouth after gardening, cleaning a cat’s litter box, or by touching anything that has come into contact with cat feces.
  • Ringworm – the most common zoonotic disease transferred from animals to humans. It is a contagious fungal infection that can affect the scalp, the body (particularly the groin), the feet and the nails. Despite its name, it has nothing to do with worms. The name comes from the characteristic red ring that can appear on an infected person’s skin.

    All animals can acquire zoonotic diseases, but animals at increased risk include: outdoor pets, unvaccinated animals, pets that are immunocompromised (a suppressed immune system), poorly groomed animals and animals that are housed in unsanitary conditions. People with immune disorders, on chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy may be at increased risk of infection.

    Animals with zoonotic diseases may exhibit a variety of clinical signs depending on the type of disease. The signs can vary from mild to severe. As a pet owner you should know your animal and be aware of any changes in behavior and appearance.

  • What to Watch For

    Signs of zoonotic diseases may include: 

  • Anorexia
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Skin lesions
  • Itching
  • Lethargy
  • Depression
  • Weight loss
  • Coughing
  • Bruising under the skin
  • Joint swellings
  • Lameness
  • Veterinary Care for Zoonotic Diseases in Dogs

    Your veterinarian will need a good history, including an accurate travel history, and complete physical examination in order to make an accurate diagnosis. Since there are so many different kinds of zoonotic diseases, your veterinarian will also do various diagnostic tests. Some of these may include blood tests, cultures, x-rays and ultrasounds.

    Treatment depends on the specific diagnosis and may include antibiotics, anti-parasitic drugs or anti-fungal drugs; intravenous fluids; symptomatic care for associated conditions (e.g. vomiting or diarrhea); and analgesic (pain) medication.

    Preventative Care

    Not all animals with zoonotic diseases are serious risks to people, but good hygiene practices should always be observed. Proper education, a good understanding of the disease and its method of transmission are a vital part of home and preventative care. Use proper hygiene and sanitation when handling pets and their excretions and maintain a good program of veterinary care.

    In-depth Information on Zoonotic Diseases in Dogs

    There are a large number of zoonotic diseases that can potentially affect people, caused by a wide variety of bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungal organisms. People may become infected by a number of different routes. Poor sanitary habits may lead to the ingestion of small amounts of animal waste products and transmission of zoonotic disease. Fecal waste is a source of many bacterial and parasitic infections, and even urine contamination can lead to disease (e.g. Leptospirosis). Ingestion of undercooked food products, skin contact with infectious agents (e.g. ringworm, fleas, mites), and bite wound or scratches are all potential modes of zoonotic transmission.

    Many zoonotic diseases are not directly transmitted from animal to people, but they require an intermediate host (vector), such as a flea or a tick, for transmission to occur. The dog or cat brings the vector into the household where humans can become exposed.

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