Methylphenidate, also known by the brand name Ritalin®, is used for the treatment of ADHD (hyperactivity) in dogs.
Behavioral disorders in dogs and cats are a frequent reason for veterinary visits. Unacceptable or dangerous animal behavior problems are also a common reason why owners request euthanasia of their pets.
Recently, veterinarians have placed greater emphasis on animal training and behavior modification, and specialists working in the field of animal behavior have increasingly adopted drugs used in human behavioral medicine for animal use. Methylphenidate is one of these drugs.
Methylphenidate, best known by its trade name, Ritalin®, is a stimulant used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
How methylphenidate works is not fully understood, but it appears to release norepinephrine in the brain, as amphetamines do.
Methylphenidate is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
Brand Names and Other Names of Methylphenidate
This drug is registered for use in humans only.
Human formulations: Ritalin® (Novartis) and generic equivalents including Methylin®, Ritalin® LA, Ritalin® SR, Concerta®, Metadata CD®
Veterinary formulations: None
Uses of Methylphenidate for Dogs
In dogs, methylphenidate is used in the treatment of ADHD, aggression associated with ADHD, cataplexy, hyperactivity, and narcolepsy.
Precautions and Side Effects
While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, methylphenidate may cause unacceptable side effects in some animals.
Because there is little information available on the use of this drug in animals, caution should be employed when using this drug.
Methylphenidate should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
Methylphenidate should be used with caution in animals prone to heart disease, hypertension (high blood pressure, or seizures.
Methylphenidate may increase blood pressure and should be used with caution in animals with a history of heart trouble.
Other side effects include anorexia, increased nervousness, and insomnia.
Methylphenidate may interact with some other medications. Consult your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with methylphenidate. Such drugs include anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Methylphenidate should not be used within 2 weeks of terminating treatment with a MAO inhibitor, such as L-deprenyl.
How Methylphenidate is Supplied
Methylphenidate is available as a 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg oral tablets. Also available in 2.5 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg chewable tablets.
Am extended release preparation of methylphenidate is available in the form of 10 mg, 18 mg, 20 mg, 27 mg, 36 mg and 54 mg tablets. Extended release capsule sizes include 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 50 mg and 60 mg.
A oral solution is available in the concentrations of 5 mg/5ml and 10 mg/5ml.
There is also a Methylphenidate transdermal patch available.
Dosing Information of Methylphenidate for Dogs
Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
Methylphenidate is dosed at 0.125 to 0.25 mg per pound (0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg) orally twice or three times daily. The dose in dogs often works out to be about 5 to 10 mg per dog orally every 12 to 24 hours.
The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication, and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian.