Septicemia is a systemic disease associated with the presence and persistence of bacteria and their toxins in the blood eventually leading to septic shock. The word septicemia literally means bacterial invasion of the blood, and it arises from a seat of infection somewhere in the body. Once a local infection opens the door for bacteria to enter the bloodstream, they travel throughout the body. This widens the circle of infection and tissue damage.
For instance, infection of the navel (umbilicus) facilitates the movement of bacteria into the blood, which then relocate to the lung causing pneumonia. Bacteria also release toxins (chemical poisons) that cause further complications, on their own. Thus, septicemia is a complex process initiated by bacterial infection and perpetuated by the spread of those bacteria and toxins to cause dysfunction and even failure of multiple organs, including the kidneys, liver, joints and lungs.
Septicemia is an important disease of neonatal (less than 14 days of age) foals. Thirty-three percent of neonatal deaths can be attributed to septicemia. In one study of 160 neonatal foals hospitalized for various reasons, septicemia was the second most common problem diagnosed. It was surpassed only by the problem of inadequate transfer of maternal antibodies from the dam's colostrum.
The foal can be exposed to bacteria in many ways. The exposure may take place while the foal is still in the mare's uterus. This is generally a consequence of the mare developing an infection of the placenta near the end of her pregnancy. Infection can also come through the blood of the mare to the fetus if the mare is severely ill (e.g. with septicemia) before birth or parturition. The foal can also get infected when exiting the birth canal. Infections that occur after the foal is born are commonly promoted by failure of the foal to get antibodies from the mare. This is called failure of passive transfer. The bacteria gain entry to the foal by inhalation, ingestion, and contamination of the umbilical stump and through wounds.
The clinical signs of septicemia are variable. They range the full spectrum from mild depression to shock and death. It is often difficult to identify the foal in the beginning of the illness. Early identification is essential in the prevention of the progression of the problem into irreversible shock. Foals usually start out with mild to moderate depression, decreased suckling frequency, and sleepiness, loss of energy, or weakness.
Because the bacteria are in the bloodstream, they can travel and settle in various organ systems causing local system infection or failure. One foal may have more than one system affected at the same time. Some of the body systems that are most affected include the following:
What to Watch For
It is not difficult to diagnose the foal that is in septic shock. These young animals are generally severely depressed to comatose. Their legs are cold and it is difficult to find a pulse. The challenge comes in diagnosing foals that are only beginning to show subtle signs of depression. Early signs include:
To recognize the early stages of sepsis, your veterinarian will attempt to get clues from a thorough perinatal history, that period shortly before and after birth, and a physical examination. This information is supplemented with some blood work, which will include a complete blood count, a serum immunoglobulin level and blood glucose. Additional blood work that is helpful if available is a blood culture, an arterial blood gas analysis, serum electrolytes and chest radiographs.
Once septicemia is suspected then treatment should start immediately. Care can be quite intensive and may require that the foal be sent to a hospital that has the ability to monitor the foal 24 hours a day. The general treatment of a septic foal should include: