Mometamax (Mometasone; Gentamicin; Clotrimazole) Otic Suspension for Dogs and Cats

Overview of Mometamax for Dogs and Cats

Mometamax is a medication to treat ear infections in dogs and cats. Otitis externa (outer ear infections) commonly include infection with both bacteria and yeast organisms. Many medications designed to treat these infections will include multiple medications to treat all aspects of the infection. You can learn more about otitis externa in these articles from the Petplace library: go to Otitis Externa (Ear Infections) in Dogs and Otitis Externa (Ear Infections) in Cats.

Mometamax contains three medications to treat your pet’s otitis:

  • Mometasone – a synthetic steroid that will help reduce inflammation in the ear canal. Inflammation is a large source of the pain associated with otitis, this will help your pet become comfortable more quickly.
  • Gentamicin – an aminoglycoside-type antibiotic that will treat a wide variety of bacteria types found in ear infections.
  • Clotrimazole – an antifungal medication used to treat infections caused by fungi (yeasts and molds). It is effective in the treatment of the common skin and ear yeast Malassezia pachydematitis and in control of the skin fungi (dermatophytes), Microsporum, Candida, and Trichophyton. The drug is also used occasionally for treatment of fungus infection of the nasal cavity.

Mometamax is specifically used to treat otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis) and bacteria (Pseudomonas, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, and beta-hemolytic streptococci).

Brand Names of Mometamax for Dogs and Cats

  • Mometamax® – Merck
  • Similar multi-drug products include:
    • Otomax Ointment (Intervet-Schering-Plough) which includes Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate and clotrimazole
    • Posatex (Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health) which includes Orbifloxacin, posaconazole, mometasone furoate monohydrate
    • Tresaderm (Merial) which includes neomycin sulfate, dexamethasone, and thiabendazole
    • Surolan (Vetoquinol) which includes miconazole nitrate, polymyxin B sulfate, and prednisolone acetate
    • Claro® Suspension which includes florfenicol, terbinafine, and mometasone Furoate
    • Generic formulations which contain neomycin, polymyxin B, and hydrocortisone (generics)

Uses of Mometamax in Dogs and Cats

  • Mometamax is prescribed to treat or control infections caused by susceptible yeast and bacterial ear infections (otitis externa). The product is currently labeled for use in dogs only but has been used “off-label” in cats also. This means it is believed to be safe but has not been directly researched in cats.
  • Mometamax is not effective against infections caused by viruses or parasites (such as worms or mites).
  • Identification of the cause of an ear infection should be undertaken by your veterinarian.
  • For more information on ear infections, please read Otitis Externa in Dogs or Otitis Externa in Cats.

Precautions and Adverse Side-Effects of Mometamax

  • The combination of clotrimazole, gentamicin, and mometasone found in Mometamax® is generally safe for use in dogs. It can also be used in cats but has not been labeled by the manufacturer for this usage at this time.
  • Your pet should be examined by your veterinarian before starting this medication, it should not be used in animals with a ruptured eardrum (tympanic membrane).
  • Signs of allergy to Mometamax® may include skin reactions, hives, and redness of the treated area.
  • Use of Mometamax® has been associated with partial hearing loss in a small number of geriatric dogs. It can be temporary in some dogs.
  • If you notice hearing loss, head tilt or dizziness in your pet undergoing treatment with Mometamax® stop the treatment and call your veterinarian immediately.
  • The steroid component of Mometamax®, mometasone has the advantage of having a lower risk of systemic corticosteroid signs than some other ear medications.
  • Do not use this drug in pregnant dogs.

How Mometamax® is Supplied

  • Mometamax® is available in various size bottles (7.5gm, 15 gm, 30 gm, and 215gm)
  • The ear canal should be cleaned and dried before the topical use of this product. It should be confirmed that the eardrum is intact prior to using this medication.
  • It is recommended to clip the excessive hair away from the area to be treated.

Dosing Information for Mometamax®

  • Mometamax® should only be used under the direction of a veterinarian. It may not be safe to administer the clotrimazole, gentamicin, and betamethasone combination to pets with certain medical problems.
  • The typical dose of Mometamax® ranges from 4 to 8 drops in the ear canal.
  • Administer 4 drops to dogs weighing less than 30 pounds once a day for 7 days, or as indicated by your veterinarian.
  • Apply 8 drops to dogs weighing more than 30 pounds once a day for 7 days.
  • Here is an article on How to Administer Ear Medication to Your Dog that may be helpful.
  • The duration of administration depends on the severity of the infection, response to the medication, and the presence of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription.

Resources & References

  • ASPCA Pet Poison Hotline
  • Current Veterinary Therapy XIV, Bonagura and Twedt
  • Current Veterinary Therapy XV, Bonagura and Twedt
  • Muller and Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology, Miller WH, Griffin CE, Campbell KL. 7th edition
  • Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Mometamax gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and clotrimazole suspension [product information]. Madison, NJ, USA.
  • Pet Poison Helpline
  • Plumb’s Veterinary Handbook by Donald C. Plumb, 9th Edition
  • Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Ettinger & Felman

Cytopoint (Lokivetmab or CADI) for Dogs

Overview of Cytopoint for Dogs

  • Cytopoint®, also known by the names Lokivetmab and Canine Atopic Dermatitis Immunotherapeutic (commonly abbreviated as CADI), is a monoclonal antibody treatment that targets and deactivates canine IL-31.
  • Canine IL-31 is a cytokine involved in sending the itch signal to the brain. Therefore, Cytopoint® is effective at controlling pruritus (itching) in dogs with allergies. Because this drug focuses on canine IL-31 – it is a dog only product. Cytopoint® not effective in cats.
  • Cytopoint® is not considered a corticosteroid or an antihistamine but has effects that can be similar and has been shown to be a great drug alternative to antihistamine drugs and steroids such as prednisone, dexamethasone, depomedtrol, and triamcinolone. Cytopoint® has been very effective in controlling itching without the side effects.
  • Cytopoint® is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
    Studies have shown that CYTOPOINT started controlling itch within 1 day of the injection and can keep the itching controlled for 4 to 8 weeks.
  • Cytopoint® has been specifically approved and labeled for use in dogs by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Brand Names and Other Names of Cytopoint®

  • This drug is registered for use in dogs only.
  • Veterinary formulations: Cytopoint®. Cytopoint® is also known as Lokivetmab and Canine Atopic Dermatitis Immunotherapeutic and commonly abbreviated as CADI).

Uses of Cytopoint® for Dogs

  • Cytopoint® has been used in the treatment of allergies such as atopy (Allergic Dermatitis in Dogs) and those allergies caused by fleas, food or other contact substances.

Precautions and Side Effects of Cytopoint for Dogs

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, Cytopoint® may cause side effects in some dogs.
  • Cytopoint® should not be used in dogs with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Cytopoint has been shown to be safe if given with antibiotics, vaccines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or allergen immunotherapy.
  • There have been limited long-term studies to identify side effects. The most common side effect from Cytopoint® noted to date has been lethargy for the first 1 -2 days following an injection.
  • There is some evidence that some dogs may show a diminished response to Cytopoint® over time suggesting that they are developing antibodies to Cytopoint®.

How Cytopoint® Is Supplied

  • Cypoint® is available in in single-use 1-mL vials in four concentrations: 10, 20, 30 or 40 mg/vials. This drug is dosed by weight with some dogs getting a combination of vials to active the appropriate amount of medication.

Dosing Information of Cytopoint® for Dogs

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • In dogs for an anti-itching effect, Cytopoint® is generally given once every 4 to 8 weeks as a subcutaneous injection.
  • Some dogs will need year-round continuous treatment and others seasonally and only during flare-ups.
  • Cytopoint® is most commonly dosed at 2 mg/kg body weight (0.9 mg/pound). For convenience, the manufacturer provides a dosing table by weight to be used as a guideline.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication, and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed otherwise by your veterinarian. Even if your pet appears to be feeling better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse.

Resources & References for Cytopoint

  • Plumb’s Veterinary Handbook by Donald C. Plumb, 9th Edition
  • ASPCA Pet Poison Hotline
  • Current Veterinary Therapy XV, Bonagura and Twedt
  • Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Mometamax gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and clotrimazole suspension [product information]. Madison, NJ, USA.
  • Pet Poison Helpline
  • Muller and Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology, Miller WH, Griffin CE, Campbell KL. 7th edition

Pantoprazole (Protonix®, Pantoloc®) for Dogs and Cats

Overview of Using Pantoprazole in Dogs and Cats

  • Pantoprazole, also known by the brand names Protonix® and Pantoloc®, is used to prevent and treat stomach ulcers and gastric acid related diseases in dogs and cats. It has been used with human medicine for years and is growing in popularity for use in dogs and cats.
  • Normally, the stomach produces gastric acid to assist in digestion. Under certain conditions, however, this acid can injure the lining (mucosa) of the stomach. The result can be stomach ulcers or erosions (“scratches”) in the stomach lining. Ulcers are also a common consequence of treatment with some drugs, especially NSAID drugs, such as aspirin.
  • When there is a risk of ulcer formation, there are many ways to heal the stomach or protect the lining. These anti-ulcer treatments can be classified as antacids (Maalox®), H2 blockers (Pepcid AC®), proton pump blockers (Prilosec®) and prostaglandin analogs, such as the drug Misoprostol and Pantoprazole.
  • Pantoprazole inhibits stomach acid secretions and has a protective effect on blood flow and the lining of the stomach wall.
  • Pantoprazole is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.

Brand Names and Other Names of ​Pantoprazole

  • This drug is registered for use in animals only.
  • Human formulations: Pantoprazole (Protonix®, Pantoloc®)
  • Veterinary formulations: None

Uses of Pantoprazole (Protonix®, Pantoloc®) for Dogs

Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, Pantoprazole can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Pantoprazole should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Pantoprazole may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with Pantoprazole. Such drugs include certain anti-fungal drugs such as ketoconazole and itraconazole, iron, thyroid supplements, sucralfate, and/or warfarin.
  • The most commonly reported adverse effect is diarrhea.

How Pantoprazole Is Supplied

  • Pantoprazole is available in delayed-release tablets in 20 mg and 40 mg sizes.
  • It is available as an oral suspension at 40 mg.
  • It is available as in injection in 40 mg vials (Protonix I.V. ®). When reconstituted, the product is mixed as labeled is stable for up to two hours at room temperature. If diluted it can be stable for up to 22 hours at room temperature.

Dosing Information of Pantoprazole (Protonix) for Dogs

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • It is recommended to give with food first thing in the morning.
  • Do not break or cut tablets.
  • Pantoprazole is commonly dosed at 0.3 to 0.45 mg per pound (0.7 to 1 mg/kg) once daily. It can be given intravenously (IV) or orally. Do not give intramuscularly (IM) or subcutaneously (SQ). When given IV should be given slowly over 15 minutes.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your dog or cat feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse.

References and Resources

  • Bersenas A. Effects of ranitidine, famotidine, pantoprazole, and omeprazole on intragastric pH in dogs. AJVR, 2005.
  • ASPCA Pet Poison Hotline
  • Current Veterinary Therapy XV, Bonagura, and Twedt
  • Pet Poison Helpline
  • Plumb’s Veterinary Handbook by Donald C. Plumb, 9th Edition
  • Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Ettinger & Felman

Polyethylene Glycol 3350 (MiraLAX®) for Dogs and Cats

Overview of Polyethylene Glycol 3350 (MiraLAX®) for Canines and Felines

  • Polyethylene glycol 3350, commonly known as MiraLAX® as well by many other trade names (see below), is used as a laxative to treat constipation for dogs and cats. It is also used to empty the intestines prior to diagnostic procedures. It is commonly used in humans before diagnostic procedures such as colonoscopy.
  • Polyethylene glycol 3350 belongs to the class of drugs known as osmotic laxatives. Polyethylene glycol works by creating and environment where water is retained in the stool. There are versions of Polyethylene glycol that contain electrolytes used primarily for preparation for colonoscopy in humans including the product “Golytely®”.
  • The recommendations in this article are for the Polyethylene Glycol 3350 Powder for solution is available in either pre-measured 17 gram packets or bulk powder such as MiraLax®, Dulcolax Balance®, and various generic names.
  • Polyethylene glycol 3350 is available without a prescription but should not be administered unless under the supervision and guidance of a veterinarian. Some pets will appear to strain which can look like constipation but is actually a urinary obstruction or colitis.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.

Brand Names and Other Names of Polyethylene glycol 3350 (MiraLAX®)

  • Human formulations: There are several different trade name products for docusate. Common names include Clearlax, Colyte, Dulcolax, Easylax, EZ2GO, Gavilax, Gavilyte, Gialax, Glycolax, Golytely, Healthylax, Laxaclear, Miralax, Moviprep, Natura-Lax, Nulytely, Pegylax, Powderlax, Purelax, Smooth lax, and Trilyte.
  • Veterinary formulations: None

Uses of Polyethylene glycol 3350 for Dogs and Cats

  • Polyethylene glycol 3350 is used to stimulate bowel movements in animals with constipation or when there is a need to empty the large intestine such as before a diagnostic procedure to examine the intestine.

Precautions and Side Effects

  • Polyethylene glycol 3350 should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, Polyethylene glycol 3350 can cause side effects in some animals. Some pets will experience lethargy, nausea, vomiting, and/or increased thirst. Longer-term use can cause electrolyte imbalances including high potassium and/or low sodium or cause dehydration.
  • Polyethylene glycol 3350 should not be used in animals with gastrointestinal obstructions, rectal bleeding or a tear in the intestinal wall (bowel perforation), or toxic colitis.  It is also not approved for breeding, nursing or lactating dogs or cats but is considered safe by many veterinarians.
  • Polyethylene glycol 3350 may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with Polyethylene glycol 3350. Such drugs include certain other laxatives and stool softeners.

How Polyethylene Glycol 3350 is Supplied

  • Polyethylene Glycol 3350 Powder for the solution is available in either pre-measured 17-gram packets or bulk powder such as MiraLax®, Dulcolax Balance®, and various generic products.
  • Polyethylene glycol 3350 is available in various solutions that have added electrolytes primarily used in humans as preparation for colonoscopy diagnostic procedures. Products include CL® Solution; CoLyte®; GoLYTELY®; NuLytely®, TriLyte®, MoviPrep®.

Dosing Information of Polyethylene Glycol 3350 for Dogs and Cats

  •   Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • In dogs, the dose of Polyethylene Glycol 3350 Powder for solution varies with the size of the dog:
    • Small dogs – 1/8 to ¼ teaspoon every 12 hours (twice daily)
    • Medium sized dogs – ¼ to ½ teaspoon every 12 hours (twice daily)
    • Large dogs – ½ to ¾ teaspoon every 12 hours (twice daily)
  • In cats, the dose of Polyethylene Glycol 3350 Powder for the solution most commonly used is as a laxative is 1/8 to ¼ teaspoon every 12 hours on food.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse.

References for Canine and Feline Use of Polyethylene glycol 3350:

  • American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. Polyethylene glycol. In: AHFS drug information 2010. Bethesda, MD, USA: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2010.
  • ASPCA Pet Poison Hotline
  • Carr A, Gaunt M. Constipation resolution with the administration of polyethylene-glycol solution in cats. In: 2010 ACVIM Forum Proceedings. Anaheim, CA, USA.
  • Current Veterinary Therapy XV, Bonagura and Twedt.
  • Leib MS. Colonoscopy. In: 80th Annual Western Veterinary Conference Notes (WVC 2008). Las Vegas, NV, USA; 2008.
  •  Ogbru O. Polyethylene glycol 3350 .San Clemente, CA, USA: Medicinenet.com; 2015.
  •  Paddock Laboratories, LLC. Polyethylene glycol 3350. Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2016.
  •  Pet Poison Helpline.
  •  Plumb’s Veterinary Handbook by Donald C. Plumb, 9th Edition.
  •  Tam FM, Carr AP, Myers SL. Safety and palatability of polyethylene glycol 3350 as an oral laxative in cats. J Feline Med Surg 2011.
  • Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Ettinger & Felman
  • Webster R, Didier E, Harris P, et al. PEGylated proteins: evaluation of their safety in the absence of definitive metabolism studies. Drug Metab Dispos 2007.
  • Carr, A. & M. Gaunt (2010). Constipation Resolution with Administration of Polyethylene-Glycol Solution in Cats (Abstract). Proceedings: ACVIM.

Esomeprazole (NexIUM®) for Dogs and Cats

Overview of Esomeprazole (NexIUM®) for Canines and Felines

  • Esomeprazole, commonly known by the brand name Nexium®, is used in the treatment and prevention of stomach (gastric) and intestinal ulcers in dogs and cats. This is a commonly used human medication but there are few studies about its use in veterinary medicine.
  • Other drugs in this class are more commonly used such as Omeprazole (Prilosec®). To avoid mistakes or confusion, please note the similarity between the names of these two different drugs – Omeprazole and ESometrazole.
  • Esomeprazole is one of the newest drugs used in the treatment of ulcers and heartburn (acid reflux from the stomach) belonging to a class of drugs called proton pump inhibitors. Esomeprazole is such a drug and has been used for the treatment and prevention of stomach ulcers.
  • Esomeprazole inhibits the movement of hydrogen ions which are constituents of hydrochloric stomach acid. Through this effect, esomeprazole blocks acid secretion in the stomach that creates a more favorable stomach pH to allow ulcers to heal.
  • The duration of effect for esomeprazole is 24 hours.
  •       Esomeprazole is available without a prescription in low does oral forms. It is recommended that you not administer any medication unless under the supervision and guidance of a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.

Brand Names and Other Names of Esomeprazole

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulations:
    • Esomeprazole Magnesium Oral Delayed-Release Capsules
    • Magnesium Powder for Oral Delayed-Release Suspension NexIUM®
    • Esomeprazole Sodium for Injection
  • Veterinary formulations: None

Uses of Esomeprazole for Dogs and Cats

  • Esomeprazole can be used in the treatment and prevention of stomach (gastric) and intestinal ulcers.
  • Esomeprazole promotes ulcer healing in animals with ulcers or erosions (shallow depressions in the stomach lining).
  • Esomeprazole may be useful in the treatment of ulcers caused by ulcerogenic drugs such steroids (such as prednisone or dexamethasone) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (commonly abbreviated as NSAID which includes aspirin, carprofen (Rimadyl), meloxicam, deracoxib (Deramaxx) and many more.
  • Another use of Esomeprazole is for the management of acid reflux disease. Esomeprazole reduces injury to the esophagus (food tube) caused by the movement of stomach acid from the stomach into the esophagus.

Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, Esomeprazole can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Esomeprazole should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Esomeprazole should be used with caution in animals with liver disease. Lower doses may be used in pets with severe liver disease.
  • Esomeprazole may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with esomeprazole. Such drugs include diazepam, cyclosporine, digoxin, rifampin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, clarithromycin, sucralfate, warfarin, diuretics, oral iron, mycophenolate, methotrexate, and ampicillin.
  • Esomeprazole has not been approved for use in breeding, nursing, or lactating dogs.
  • Adverse reactions to esomeprazole are uncommon as long as recommended doses are administered. Occasionally, some animals develop nausea, vomiting, flatulence, anorexia, diarrhea, urinary tract infections and/or central nervous system disturbances.
  • Here is some information about if your dog accidentally eats Nexium and you are worried about potential overdose.

How Esomeprazole Is Supplied

  • Esomeprazole Magnesium is supplied as Oral Delayed-Release Capsules in sizes of 20 mg and 40 mg.
  • Esomeprazole Magnesium Powder for Oral Delayed-Release Suspension in 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg packets.
  • Esomeprazole Sodium is available for Injection: 20 & 40 mg.

Dosing Information of Esomeprazole for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • Oral doses should be given on an empty stomach or at least one hour before eating.
  • The dose of oral Esomeprazole administered to dogs and cats is 0.25 to 0.75 mg per pound (0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg) every 24 hours or once daily.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.

References and Resources

  • ASPCA Pet Poison Hotline
  • Current Veterinary Therapy XV, Bonagura and Twedt
  • Pet Poison Helpline
  • Plumb’s Veterinary Handbook by Donald C. Plumb, 8th Edition
  • Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Ettinger & Felman
  • Videla, R., et al.. Effects of Intravenously Administered Esomeprazole Sodium on Gastric Juice pH in Adult Female Horses. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2011.
  • Zacuto, A. C., et al.  The Influence of Esomeprazole and Cisapride on Gastroesophageal Reflux During Anesthesia in Dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2012.

Grapiprant (Galliprant®) for Dogs

Grapiprant, most commonly known by the brand name Galliprant®, is an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug commonly used in dogs. It belongs to the class of drugs known as a first-in-class piprant; a non-COX-inhibiting prostaglandin receptor antagonist (PRA).

  • Galliprant works by blocking the specific receptor, the EP4 receptor, the main mediator of osteoarthritis pain and inflammation in dogs.
  • Galliprant is commonly compared to or used as an alternative to the class of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Drugs in this class include Celebrex®, ibuprofen, carprofen (Rimadyl®), Deracoxib (Deramaxx®), aspirin and naproxen. Drugs in this class are associated with side effects relative to kidney and liver function and therefore Galliprant is commonly used as a safer alternative in some dogs with underlying liver or kidney disease that require pain management.
  • Galliprant® is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.

Brand Names and Other Names of Deracoxib

  •   This drug is registered for use in animals only.
  •   Human formulations: None
  •   Veterinary formulations: Galliprant® (Elanco)

 

Uses of Deracoxib for Dogs

  • Galliprant® is indicated for the control of pain and inflammation associated with orthopedic pain from osteoarthritis in dogs.
  • Galliprant® can also be used for chronic pain management.

Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, Galliprant® can cause side effects in some animals. The most common side effects are decreased appetite, vomiting, soft mucoid stools, and/or diarrhea. Please contact your veterinarian if you see these signs in your dog while giving Galliprant®.
  • Galliprant® should not be used in dogs with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug or other drugs in this class.  Signs of an allergic reaction to Galliprant® may include hives, itchy skin and/or facial swelling.
  • Galliprant® is not approved for use in dogs over under month of age under 8 pounds in weight, or dogs used for breeding, pregnant or nursing.
  • Since Galliprant® has not been tested in cats, it should not be used in this species.
  • Galliprant® may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with Galliprant®.  Do not give Galliprant® with drugs such as aspirin, corticosteroids such as prednisone, and other NSAID drugs such as meloxicam or carprofen.

How Galliprant® is Supplied

  •   Galliprant® is available as 20 mg, 60 mg, and 100 mg tablets.
  •   Bottle sizes include 7, 30 and 90 count.

Dosing Information of Galliprant® for Dogs

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • The typical dose administered to dogs for control of pain associated with arthritis is 0.5 to 1 mg per pound (1 to 2 mg/kg) every 24 hours orally as needed.
  • Galliprant® may be administered with or without food.
  • Half tablet increments may be prescribed.
  • It is recommended to use the lowest dose to provide pain control.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse.

We hope this gives you more information about the drug Galliprant®. For additional information or to report an adverse drug reaction, please contact the FDA at 1-888-FDA-VETS.

Resources & References:

  •      ASPCA Pet Poison Hotline.
  •      Current Veterinary Therapy XV, Bonagura and Twedt.
  •      Pet Poison Helpline.
  •      Plumb’s Veterinary Handbook by Donald C. Plumb, 9th Edition.
  •      Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Ettinger & Felman.

15 MORE Human Over-the-Counter Drugs Safe for Dogs

Some human drugs are dangerous and can even be fatal when given to dogs. When a dog develops a health problem at home such as vomiting, diarrhea, or coughing, many pet owners want to know what they can safely give their dogs at home before taking their dog to the veterinarian.

Not only is important to know which medications are safe but also which medications are available to you without a prescription. Drugs you may obtain without a prescription are referred to as “OTC” drugs which means over-the-counter. OTC drugs are available at most pharmacies such as Wal-Mart®, Walgreens®, CVS®, Target®, and/or online pharmacies and drug stores.

Below are 15 more over-the-counter medications (OTC) that are commonly used in humans and can be used safely in most dogs.  For the first 15 over-the-counter medications (OTC) that are commonly used in humans and can be used safely in most dogs, please visit this article: 15 Human Over-the-Counter Drugs Safe for Dogs.

Allergy Medications (con’t)

16. Cetirizine (Zyrtec®)

Cetirizine, commonly known by the brand name Zyrtec®, belongs to a class or drugs known as antihistamines, similar to Benadryl. It is commonly used in dogs with allergic symptoms such as inflamed and/or itchy skin.  In cats, Cetirizine is more commonly used to treat inflammation of the nose and sinus. Many pet owners prefer Cetirizine over Benadryl because of its longer lasting effects.

A common dose used for dogs is 0.25 to 0.5 mg per pound of body weight. Therefore a ten-pound dog would get 2.5 to 5 mg total dose and a 50-pound dog would get 12.5 mg to 25 mg total dose. Common OTC pill sizes are 10 mg.

For more information on how to safely give Cetirizine in dogs.

17.  Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-tabs® or Chlor-Trimeton®)

Chlorpheniramine maleate is a type of anti-histamine drug commonly used in dogs with allergies to control itching.  Human formulations include Chlor-tabs®, Aller-Chlor®, Chlo-Amine®, Chlor-Trimeton®, and various generic preparations. A common side effect is sedation and therefore is occasionally used as a mild sedative.

Chlorpheniramine is contraindicated in dogs with glaucoma, lung disease, heart disease, high blood pressure and prostate gland enlargement.

Chlorpheniramine is available in 2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg, 12 mg and 16 mg tablets and as a 2-mg/5 ml oral syrup.  Most dogs take 4 to 12 mg (total dose) orally. Learn more about how to safely dose Chlorpheniramine in dogs.

18.  Fexofenadine (Allegra®)

Fexofenadine, commonly known as Allegra or Telfast, is an antihistamine drug that can be used to control itching and other signs related to allergic conditions. It is important only to use products that indicate the active ingredient is Fexofenadine. Formulas containing Fexofenadine and pseudoephedrine, such as Allegra-D can be toxic to dogs so please be VERY careful. Make sure if you give Fexofenadine to your dog, that Fexofenadine is the ONLY ingredient. Learn more about how to safely give Fexofenadine to your dog.

19.  Loratadine (Claritin®)

Loratadine, commonly known as Claritin or Alavert, is a type of antihistamine drug commonly used in dogs to control itchy skin. Loratadine is typically considered less sedating than other antihistamines. Learn more about how to safely dose Loratadine.

Pain Medication

20. Traumeel (T-Relief®)

T-Relief is an over-the-counter homeopathic medication commonly used to pain and inflammation associated with arthritis and musculoskeletal injuries, such as with arthritis, sprains and traumatic injuries.

T-Relief contains a combination of plant and mineral extracts. It has gained popularity in veterinary medicine as an alternative to the class of drugs called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (commonly abbreviated as NSAIDs) because of its good results with minimal to no side effects.

T-Relief is available in the forms of tablets, drops, injection solution, ointment, and gel.  Learn more about how to safely dose Learn more about how to correctly dose Traumeel (T-Relief) in your dog.

T-relief is commonly used with other pain relieving drugs. When combined with other drugs, it can sometimes allow you to use lower doses of medications associated with more side effects.

21. Zeel

Zeel® is a homeopathic medication used to treat pain and inflammation often associated with musculoskeletal injuries, such as sprains and traumatic injuries, and as supportive therapy in pain and inflammation of the musculoskeletal system such as with arthritis in dogs and cats. Like T-Relief, Zeel® has gained popularity in the United States an alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NASID) to treat pain and swelling.

Zeel® is available in the forms of tablets, ointment, and drinkable ampules. Zeel® can be used in conjunction with other pain medications and is sometimes used in conjunction with another homeopathic medication called Traumeel (T-Relief). It can be used safely with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID’s), steroids, and other pain relief drugs.

Calcium Carbonate for Dogs and Cats

Overview of Calcium Carbonate for Canines and Felines

  • Calcium carbonate, also known as Tums®, is an oral calcium salt that is used to treat pets with low calcium levels (hypocalcemia), as an antacid and/or as a phosphate binder in dogs and cats.
  • Calcium carbonate can also be used as an oral antacid and for conditions such as esophagitis and/or gastroduodenal ulcerations. However, calcium carbonate is uncommonly prescribed as an antacid as there are stronger and more effective antacids.
  • Calcium carbonate is used most often for chronic conditions. Injectable calcium gluconate is often used for an acute hypocalcaemic crisis.
  • It is recommended that you work with your veterinarian to monitor calcium and phosphorus levels when giving calcium carbonate.
  • Calcium Carbonate is available over the counter but should not be administered unless under the supervision and guidance of a veterinarian.

Brand Names and Other Names of Calcium Carbonate

  • Human formulations: Various generic preparations
  • Veterinary formulations: None

Uses of Calcium Carbonate for Dogs and Cats

  • Calcium carbonate can also be used as an oral antacid and for conditions such as esophagitis and/or gastroduodenal ulcerations. However, calcium carbonate is uncommonly prescribed as an antacid as there are stronger and more effective antacids.
  • It is commonly used as a calcium supplement in dogs with chronic hypocalcemia and to treat hyperphosphatemia associated with chronic renal (kidney) failure.

Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, calcium Carbonate can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Calcium Carbonate should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity to it nor in pets with high calcium levels.
  • Safety in pregnant or lactating dogs and cats has not been studied. However, calcium carbonate is considered safe during lactation by most veterinarians.
  • Calcification of the soft tissues is possible side effects associated with long-term dosing.

  Drug Interactions

  • Calcium Carbonate may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with Calcium Carbonate. Interactions may include:
  • Simultaneous treatment with other calcium products (such as calcium gluconate, Calcitriol) could lead to high calcium levels (hypercalcemia).
  • Calcium carbonate be used with caution in pets with cardiac arrhythmias and are on heart medications such as digoxin. Certain antibiotics are not recommended while administering calcium products including tetracycline and doxycycline and fluoroquinolones such as enrofloxacin (Baytril®) or Ciprofloxacin (Cipro®).
  • Other drug interactions may include thyroid supplements, stomach medications including misoprostol, famotidine (Pepcid), ranitidine (Zantac) and cimetidine (Tagamet).

How Calcium Carbonate is Supplied

  • There are many oral calcium carbonate products available in chewable and regular tablets in common sizes are 500 mg, 750 mg, and 1000mg.
  • There is also oral suspensions 1250 mg/5mL.

Dosing Information of Calcium Carbonate for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • Doses of calcium carbonate vary widely depending on the reason for prescribing and response top initial doses.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse.
  • It is recommended to give calcium carbonate with food
  • The dose most commonly used in dogs as an antacid is 0.5 grams and up to 5 grams total dose orally every 4 hours as needed. Small dogs can receive 500 mg, medium sized dogs 750 to 1000 mg and larger dogs 2000 mg.
  • As a calcium supplement, common dosage ranges include:
    • Cats: 1250 mg to 2 grams per day
    • Small breed dogs: 1250 mg per day
    • Medium dogs: 2 grams to 4 grams per day
    • Large breed dogs: 4 grams to 6 grams per day
    • Giant breed dogs: 6 to 10 grams orally per day
  • For treatment of hyperphosphatemia associated with chronic kidney failure, the dose commonly recommended is 41 to 68 mg/pound/day (90 – 150 mg/kg/day) total dose divided. It is recommended to give with food. The dose is commonly adjusted based on blood levels.

Resources & References:

  • ASPCA Pet Poison Hotline
  • Current Veterinary Therapy XV, Bonagura and Twedt
  • Pet Poison Helpline
  • Plumb’s Veterinary Handbook by Donald C. Plumb, 8th Edition
  • Polzin, D. J. (2013). Evidence-based step-wise approach to managing chronic kidney disease in dogs and cats. Vet. Emerg. Crit. Care 23(2): 205-15
  • Polzin, D.,et al. (2005). Chronic Kidney Disease. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine: Diseases of the Dog and Cat 6th Ed. S. Ettinger and E. Feldman, Elsevier: 1756-85.
  • Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Ettinger & Felman

15 Human Over-the-Counter Drugs Safe for Dogs

Some human drugs are dangerous and can even be fatal when given to dogs. When a dog develops a health problem at home such as vomiting, diarrhea, or coughing, many pet owners want to know what they can safely give their dogs at home before taking their dog to the veterinarian.

Not only is important to know which medications are safe but also which medications are available to you without a prescription. Drugs you may obtain without a prescription are referred to as “OTC” drugs which means over-the-counter. OTC drugs are available at most pharmacies such as Wal-Mart®, Walgreens®, CVS®, Target®, and/or online pharmacies and drug stores.

Below we will give you information about 30 over-the-counter medications (OTC) that are commonly used humans and can be used safely in most dogs.

We will include information about stomach medications which can be used in dogs with sensitive stomach or vomiting, drugs to treat diarrhea, pain medications, drugs for coughing, drugs that can be used to treat dogs that have allergies and are showing symptoms such as itching, medications to use on dogs that get car sick, and a safe eye product.

It is recommended that you work with your family veterinarian before giving any medication to your dog.

Human OTC Stomach Medications Used in Dogs

  1.     Famotidine (Pepcid®)

Famotidine, commonly known by the brand name Pepcid® among others, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that decreases the production of acid in the stomach. It is frequently used to treat stomach problems such ulcerations and for pets with nausea or are prone to vomiting.

Famotidine is the most commonly used in this class due to its improved mechanism of action and length of action.  Famotidine has largely replaced previous generation drugs, such as Cimetidine and Ranitidine. We will discuss these medications more below.

Famotidine is available in both injectable and oral tablet sizes. Common oral sizes include 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg. A common OTC size is 10 mg. A common dosage is 0.25 mg to 0.5 mg/pound once to twice a day.

For example, a 10-pound dog would get 2.5 mg to 5 mg total dose or ¼ to ½ of a 10 mg tablet.  A 20-pound dog would get 5 mg to 10 mg per dose which would be ½ to 1 10 mg tablet.

Here is more information on how to safely dose and use Famotidine in dogs.

  1.     Ranitidine (Zantac®)

Ranitidine, commonly known by the brand name Zantac among others, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that decreases the production of acid in the stomach. Like Famotidine listed above is commonly used to treat stomach problems such ulcerations.

Ranitidine is available in both injectable and oral tablet sizes. Common oral sizes include 75 mg, 150 mg, and 300 mg. Here is an article on how to correctly dose and use Ranitidine in dogs.

  1.     Cimetidine (Tagamet®)

Cimetidine, commonly known by the brand name Tagamet® among others, is the oldest common histamine H2 receptor antagonist drug that decreases the production of acid in the stomach. Cimetidine is less commonly used due to the development of new and better drugs in the class of histamine H2 receptor antagonist.

However, in a pinch, some pet owners have this medication in their homes and can use Cimetidine. Famotidine (also known as Pepcid and discussed above) and Ranitidine are known as Zantac and discussed above) both have fewer drug interactions with longer activity.

The risks associated with Cimetidine mostly evolves around its interaction with other drugs. If your dog or cat is on other medications, it is better to choose a newer generation histamine H2 receptor antagonist such as famotidine (Pepcid) discussed above that does not have those same possible adverse effects from drug interactions.

Learn more about how to safely dose Cimetidine in dogs and drug interactions that you should know about.

  1.     Calcium Carbonate (Tums®)

Calcium carbonate, commonly known as Tums®, is an antacid and oral phosphate binder. It is commonly used as a calcium supplement in dogs with chronic hypocalcemia and to treat hyperphosphatemia associated with chronic renal (kidney) failure. Calcium carbonate can also be used as an oral antacid and for conditions such as esophagitis and/or gastroduodenal ulcerations. However, calcium carbonate is uncommonly prescribed as an antacid as there are stronger and more effective antacids.

There are many oral calcium carbonate products available in chewable and regular tablets in common sizes are 500 mg, 750 mg, and 1000mg. There is also oral suspensions 1250 mg/5mL.

The dose most commonly used in dogs as an antacid is 0.5 grams and up to 5 grams total dose orally every 4 hours as needed.  Small dogs can receive 500 mg, medium sized dogs 750 to 1000 mg and larger dogs 2000 mg.

Can You Give Your Pet This? Here Are Human Meds That Are Vet Approved

There are thousands of drugs on the market for humans and animals. Drug categories include antibiotics, chemotherapy, anti-inflammatory, acid-reducing stomach medications, allergy medications, pain medications, anti-anxiety, anti-nausea, anti-vomiting, and many more.

Many medications used to treat dogs and cats are human medications. However, it is important to know that some human drugs can be given to pets safely and other drugs are very unsafe. In fact, some commonly used human drugs are extremely toxic. One example of an unsafe medication is acetaminophen, also known by the trade name Tylenol®.  Acetaminophen is a human medication used to reduce pain, fever, and symptoms associated with the cold or flu. Small amounts of acetaminophen are toxic to cats and can cause severe illness and possibly death.

On the other hand, there are human drugs that are safe to use in pets. In fact, many human drugs are exactly the same as the pet drug. Numerous pet prescriptions are filled at human pharmacies including heart medications, anti-depressants, and antibiotics just to name a few.  There are also many over-the-counter (OTC) medications that can be safely used in dogs and cats that don’t require a prescription including famotidine (Pepcid), cimetidine (Tagamet), Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), and Cetirizine (Zantac).

Below we will give you information about four human medications that are vet approved and tell you how they can be used safely in dogs and cats.

All About Famotidine for Dogs and Cats

Famotidine, commonly known by the brand name Pepcid®, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that decreases the production of acid in the stomach. It has been used in human medication since the late 1970’s.  The most common use is to treat heartburn and ulcerations in both humans and dogs.

Famotidine is commonly used in human medications and veterinary medicine due to its improved mechanism of action and length of action as compared to other drugs in its class.  Famotidine has largely replaced previous histamine H2 receptor antagonist generation drugs, such as Cimetidine. We will discuss more on Cimetidine below.

Famotidine is available in both injectable and oral tablets in multiple sizes. Common oral sizes include 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg. The larger milligram sizes are prescription but the 10 mg size is a common over-the-counter size that can be found in most pharmacies.

There are minimal risks associated with Famotidine although there are drug interactions with digoxin and ketoconazole.

Learn more about how to dose and use Famotidine safely in dogs and in cats.

The typical dose of Famotidine given to dogs is 0.25 mg to 0.5 mg per pound orally every twelve to twenty-four hours.  Common doses of Famotidine in dogs and cats include:

  •   A 20-pound dog would need 5 to 10 mg per dose every 12 to 24 hours.
  •   A 50-pound dog would require a dose of 12.5 mg to 25 mg total dose every 12 to 24 hours.
  •   A 10-pound cat would require 2.5 to 5 mg as a total dose every 12 to 24 hours.

Since the most common OTC size of famotidine is 10 mg. As you can see above the dose can vary from ¼ pill in small dogs and cats to 2 ½ pills in large dogs.

All About Cimetidine for Dogs and Cats

Cimetidine, commonly known by the brand name Tagamet® among others, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that decreases the production of acid in the stomach. It has been used in human medication since the late 1970’s.

Cimetidine is less commonly used today in human medications and veterinary medicine due to the development of new and better drugs in the class of histamine H2 receptor antagonist. Cimetidine has effects on the cytochrome P450 enzyme system which can lead to various drug interactions. Such drug interactions include certain antacids, metoclopramide, sucralfate, diazepam, and digoxin.

The newer drugs have fewer drug interactions with longer activity. Newer generation drugs in this class include Famotidine (also known as Pepcid® and discussed above) and Ranitidine (also known as Zantac®).

However, Cimetidine is still used and available and can be used in a pinch if you have a dog with nausea and/or vomiting.  Cimetidine is available in both injectable and oral tablet sizes including 100 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg, and 300 mg.

The risks associated with Cimetidine mostly evolves around its interaction with other drugs. If your dog or cat is on other medications, it is better to choose and give a newer generation histamine H2 receptor antagonist such as famotidine (Pepcid®) discussed above that does not have those same possible adverse effects from drug interactions.