Emodepside/Praziquantel (Profender®) for Dogs and Cats

Overview of Emodepside/Praziquantel for Felines and Canines

  • Emodepside and Praziquantel, also known as Profender®, are two drugs combined together and used to treat roundworm, hookworms, and tapeworm parasites in cats and dogs. Emodepside/Praziquantel is currently being marketed as Profender® by Bayer HealthCare. Labeled for use in cats in the United States but labeled for use in dogs in other countries. 
  • Due to a large number and variety of parasites that can infect pets, the control of parasitic disease often requires the use of multiple drugs. Most of the drugs commonly used to treat or control common nematode intestinal worms and heartworms are ineffective in controlling tapeworms (many of which are considered cestodes). 
  • Praziquantel is a parasite control drug with strong activity against a number of different tapeworms. Praziquantel impairs the function of the parasites sucker and stimulates movement of the worm. This dislodges the parasites attachment to the intestinal tract and allows it to be eliminated in the feces.
  • The most common tapeworm (Dipylidium) is spread from pet to pet by fleas. Less common tapeworms (Taenia and Echinococcus) are acquired by animals that hunt and ingest the hosts, such as rabbits which carry these worms.
  • This medication is readily absorbed through the skin by topical application.
  • Emodepside is a deworming medication that acts to treat roundworms and hookworms in cats. Emodepside works on the neuromuscular synapses, which ultimately causes paralysis and death of the nematodes.
  • Emodepside/Praziquantel is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Emodepside/Praziquantel

  • This drug is registered for use in animals only.
  • Human formulations: None
  • Veterinary formulations: Profender® (Bayer HealthCare)
  • Uses of Emodepside/Praziquantel for Cats and Dogs

  • Emodepside/Praziquantel is used to control Hookworm, roundworm, and Tapeworm Infection in Cats
  • Can also be used in dogs to control hookworms, roundworms and tapeworm infections. 
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, Emodepside/Praziquantel can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Emodepside/Praziquantel should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Emodepside/Praziquantel may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with Emodepside/Praziquantel.
  • Emodepside/Praziquantel is considered very safe and there are few precautions. It is approved for use in cats that are at least 8 weeks of age and weight at least 2.2 pounds (1 kg).
  • This drug should not be used for cats less than 8 weeks of age, less than 2.2 pounds, cats used for breeding, or during pregnancy or lactation. It should also not be used in sick or debilitated cats.
  • After administration, stiff hair, wet hair or a slight powdery residue at the site may be noticed in normal circumstances.
  • Adverse effects are few and include reports of licking/excessive grooming, scratching at site, salivation, hair loss, agitation nervousness, vomiting, diarrhea, eye irritation, respiratory irritation and shaking/tremors.
  • Emodepside/Praziquantel should not be given to cats orally.
  • Emodepside/Praziquantel should be kept out the reach of children. Children should not have contact with a cat for the first 24 hours of treatment to prevent accidental ingestion.
  • How Emodepside/Praziquantel Is Supplied

  • Emodepside/Praziquantel is available in topical form in 3 dosage sizes.
    • Small cat and kittens – for those weighing 0.5 kg to 2.5 kg – 0.35 ml in 1 mL pipette.
    • Medium cats – for cats weighing 2.5 to 5 kg – 0.7 ml in 1 mL pipette.
    • Large cats – cats weighing 5 kg to 8 kg – 1.12 ml in 2.5 mL pipette.

    Dosing Information of Emodepside/Praziquantel for Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • Profender® is a topical solution used in cats. Do not apply to areas where the skin is broken or if the haircoat is wet. It should be applied high on the back in an area where the pet can not lick at the area. Application at the base of the neck is the best area as it minimizes changes of licking and exposure to the area.
  • This medication should be applied directly to the skin without human skin exposure to the liquid. Use gloves if possible. Wash hands after administration.
  • Profender® may be used every 3 months in adult cats.
  • Profender® may be used at 8 and 12 weeks of age in kittens and every 3 months thereafter.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if you no longer see worms, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse.
  • Afoxolaner (NexGard™) for Dogs

     

    Overview of Afoxolaner (NexGard™) for Dogs

    • Afoxolander, commonly known by the brand name NexGard™, is a drug that provides flea and tick control for dogs. NexGard™ also known as Afoxolander contains antiparasitic agents used to kill and prevent fleas.
    • NexGard™ is the first FDA approved chewable beef-flavored tablet for treatment and prevention of flea infestations and the American Dog Tick. The active ingredient in NexGard™ is Afoxolaner. Afoxolaner works by over-stimulating the insects nervous system.
    • NexGardTM is a member of the isoxazoline family, shown to bind at a binding site to inhibit insect and acarine ligand-gated chloride channels. The channel in particular those gated by the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This results in hyperexcitation resulting in uncontrolled activity of the central nervous system and death of insects and acarines.
    • NexGard™ is a soft beef-flavored chewable that is very palatable.
    • The effects last about 30 days against fleas and ticks. In a study, NexGard™ killed 100% of fleas within 24 hours.
    • Swimming or bathing has no effect on NexGard™.
    • For use in dogs only.
    • NexGard™ is a Prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.

    Brand Names and Other Names of Afoxolaner

    • This drug is Registered for use in animals only.
    • Human formulations: None
    • Veterinary formulations: NexGard™ (Merial)

    Uses of Afoxolaner for Dogs

    • NexGard™ is used in the control and treatment of adult flea infestations in puppies and dogs. For more information on flea infestations, please see Flea Infestation in Dogs.
    • Nexgard™ also kills the American dog tick.
    • NexGard™ may benefit pets with Flea Allergy Dermatitis.

    Precautions and Side Effects of Afoxolaner (NexGard™)

    • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, Nexgard™ can cause side effects in some animals.
    • Nexgard™ should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
    • Nexgard™ is approved for use in dogs and puppies over 8 weeks of age and 4 pounds or more. It should be used with caution in breeding females, pregnant dogs, lactating dogs and in dogs with epilepsy or a history of seizures. Can be used in any breed of dog.
    • NexGard™ cannot be used on cats.
    • Nexgard™ may interact with other medications although preliminary studies found it to be safe with other dewormers, antibiotics, steroids, anesthetics, antihistamine.
    • Consult with your veterinarian to discuss using other medications when your pet is on Nexgard™.
    • Nexgard™ is an oral agent. The most common side effect noted was vomiting. Other adverse reactions included decreased dry flakey skin, diarrhea, lethargy and lack of appetite.
    • To report suspected adverse events, for technical assistance or to obtain a copy of the MSDS, contact Merial at 1-888-637-4251 or www.merial.com/nexgard.

    How Afoxolaner is Supplied

     

    • Nexgard™ is available as an oral beef-flavored chewable tablet. It is dosed by body weight. Available sizes include:

      4 – 10 pounds – 11.3 mg tablet
      10.1 – 24 pounds – 28.3 mg tablet
      24.1 to 60 pounds – 68 mg tablet
      60.1 to 121 pounds – 136 mg tablet

      Dogs over 121.1 pounds should be given the appropriate combination of tablets.
      Expiration is 2 years from date of manufacture.

     

    Dosing Information for Afoxolaner

    Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.

    The dose of NexGard™ for preventative flea and tick control is administration of the product every 4 weeks throughout the flea and tick season.

    NexGard™ can be administered with or without food.

    Treatment can begin any time of year but should ideally begin 1 month prior to flea season.

    The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. The manufacturer suggests monthly treatments to protect against flea re-infestation. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian.

     

     

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    Minocycline (Minocin®, Dynacin®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Minocycline for Canines and Felines

  • Minocycline, also known as Minocin® or Dynacin®, is an antibiotic for dogs and cats of the tetracycline class. This drug is related to other tetracyclines such as doxycyline, chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline. It has recently been used more often and in place of doxycyline because of a substantial increase in the price of that product.
  • Minocycline will inhibit the synthesis of protein within susceptible organisms (bacteria, etc.), resulting in their death.
  • Minocycline is often used for infections caused by bacteria and by microorganisms that are not susceptible to common antibiotics. 
  • Minocycline is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Minocycline

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulations: Minovin®, Dynacin® (and various generic preparations.
  • Veterinary formulations: None
  • Uses of Minocycline for Dogs and Cats

  • Minocycline is an antibiotic used to treat infections in animals caused by susceptible bacteria
  • Examples of these infections include urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, blood-borne infections and wound infections. 
  • Minocycline is especially useful for treating tick-borne bacterial diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichiosis and water-borne infections such as leptospirosis
  • Minocycline is also used to treat Wolbachia, an organism that infects heartworms, in an effort to treat heartworm disease.
  • Minocycline is not effective for treating infections caused by a virus or fungus.
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, minocycline can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Minocycline should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Minocycline may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with minocycline. Such drugs include certain antacids, iron supplements, kaolin, bismuth subsalicylate, isotretinoin, warfarin and certain antibiotics such as penicillins.
  • The most common side effects include gastrointestinal disturbances. Occasionally nausea and/or vomiting has been observed, especially when high doses are administered. 
  • Rarely, animals may develop diarrhea or loose stools from oral minocycline. This is related to a change in the bacterial population in the animal's intestine. If diarrhea is observed, your veterinarian should be notified, and a change in medication may be indicated.
  • Minocycline may bind to calcium in teeth and cause discoloration. Therefore, the administration of minocycline to animals younger than seven months of age is discouraged without first consulting with a veterinarian. Minocycline is less likely to cause bone and teeth abnormalities then other tetracyclines.
  • Minocycline should not be administered orally with calcium or calcium-containing medications because they may inhibit oral absorption of the antibiotic.
  • How Minocycline is Supplied

  • Minocycline is available as oral tablets as follows: 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg. Extended release 45 mg, 65 mg, 115 and 135 mg.
  • Available in oral capsules in 50, 75 and 100 mg.
  • Oral suspension 50 mg/5 ml in 60 mL.
  • Available in powder for injection in 100 mg vials.
  • Dosing Information of Minocycline for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian. 
  • The typical dose for dogs is 2.2 to 5.4 mg per pound (5 to 12 mg/kg) every 12 hours to 24 hours orally. Doses can be higher to treat some infections.
  • The typical dose for cats is 2.2 to 5.4 mg per pound (5 to 12 mg/kg) every 12 hours orally. Doses may be higher to treat some infections.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.

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    Paroxetine (Paxil®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Paroxetine for Canines and Felines

     

    •  Paroxetine, also known by the brand name Paxil®, is a prescription drug used to treat aggression, anxiety disorders, compulsive disorders, and other behavioral disorders in cats and dogs.
    • Behavioral disorders in dogs and cats are common reasons for veterinary visits. Behavioral problems are also a frequent reason for euthanasia of pets, especially when unacceptable or dangerous animal behavior is involved.
    • Recently, veterinarians have begun placing increasing emphasis on animal training and behavior modification, and animal behavior specialists have adopted drugs used to modify human moods and behavior for animal use. Paroxetine is one of these drugs.
    • This drug increases serotonin levels in the brain. Serotonin is a chemical that facilitates transmission of “messages” between brain cells. Its effects are very similar to those of another serotonin enhancing drug, Prozac® (fluoxetine).
    • Paroxetine is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
    • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but may be prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.

     

    Brand Names and Other Names of Paroxetine

     

    • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
    • Human formulations: Paxil® (SK-Beecham)
    • Veterinary formulations: None

     

    Uses of Paroxetine for Dogs and Cats

     

    • In dogs, paroxetine is sometimes used to treat aggression, fear-based behaviors (such as storm and noise phobias), anxiety-based behaviors (such as separation anxiety), and compulsive disorders (such as acral lick dermatitis and compulsive tail-chasing).
    • In cats, paroxetine is used to treat aggression, excessive fearfulness, urine-marking, and compulsive behaviors (such as excessive grooming, tail-chasing and wool-sucking).

     

    Precautions and Side Effects

     

    • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, paroxetine may cause unacceptable side effects in some animals.
    • Paroxetine should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
    • The drug should be used with caution in elderly patients, patients with blood or kidney disorders, and patients with a history of seizures.
    • The drug should be discontinued in any patient that develops seizures while receiving treatment. If your pet experiences seizures while getting paroxetine, contact your veterinarian immediately.
    • Lack of appetite, lethargy, tremor, and increased thirst are the most common side effects of paroxetine.
    • Some pets may develop dry or itchy skin, vomiting, or diarrhea.
    • Paroxetine may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with paroxetine. Such drugs include MAO inhibitors (Anipryl®), cimetidine, phenytoin, and L-tryptophan.

     

    How Paroxetine is Supplied

     

    • Paroxetine is available as 20 mg and 30 mg tablets.

     

    Dosing Information of Paroxetine for Dogs and Cats

     

    • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
    • In dogs, the usual dose of Paroxetine is 0.5 to 1 mg per pound (1 to 2 mg/kg) orally every 24 hours.
    • In cats, the usual dose of Paroxetine is 0.25 to 0.75 mg per pound (0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg) orally every 24 hours.
    • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication, and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed otherwise by your veterinarian.

     

     

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    Desoxycorticosterone (DOCP, Percorten-V®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Desoxycorticosterone for Dogs and Cats

  •  Desoxycorticosterone, also known as Percorten-V® and often referred to by the letters "DOCP", is an injectable drug used to treat Addison's disease in dogs and cats. DOCP is given with prednisolone. 
  • Addison's disease – more properly known as hypoadrenocorticism – is a deficiency of hormones (cortisol, aldosterone) normally produced by the adrenal glands. Consequences of this disorder can include extreme weakness, shock, vomiting, diarrhea, disturbances of blood potassium and sodium, abnormal heart rhythms and death.
  • Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs is an autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of the adrenal gland cortex (outer layers) and a deficiency of vital hormones.
  • One of the hormones produced by the adrenal glands and absent in Addison's disease is aldosterone. This hormone assists the kidney in retaining needed sodium and getting rid of excess potassium. Deficiency of the hormone increases sodium loss in the urine, reduces blood pressure and increases blood potassium. High blood potassium can be dangerous, leading to fatal cardiac arrhythmias.
  • Treatment of Addison's disease requires replacement of missing hormones. It is essential to replace aldosterone with a similar hormone. Desoxycorticosterone is an injectable replacement (hormone) belonging to a class of drugs known as mineralocorticoids steroids. Desoxycorticosterone is also called DOCP.
  • DOCP acts on the kidney to increase the absorption of sodium and facilitates excretion of potassium from the body.
  • The effects of DOCP last between 21 and 30 days following injection.
  • DOCP is not effective if kidney function is significantly impaired.
  • DOCP is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Desoxycorticosterone

  • This drug is registered for use in animals only.
  • Human formulations: None
  • Veterinary formulations: Percorten-V® (Novartis Animal Health)
  • Uses of Desoxycorticosterone for Dogs and Cats

  • Desoxycorticosterone is used to treat Addison's disease in dogs and cats. 
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, desoxycorticosterone can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Desoxycorticosterone (DOCP) should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • DOCP may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with desoxycorticosterone. Such drugs include furosemide, insulin, digoxin and amphotericin B.
  • DOCP use should be avoided in animals with heart failure or kidney failure.
  • Since DOCP is available only as an injection. Soreness and inflammation at the site of injection is a potential adverse effect.
  • Overdose of DOCP leads to increased thirst and urination, fluid retention and possible weakness.
  • How Desoxycorticosterone Is Supplied

  • Desoxycorticosterone is available as a 25 mg/ml injection.
  • Dosing Information of Desoxycorticosterone for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • Initially, desoxycorticosterone is dosed in dogs and cats at 1 mg per pound (2.2 mg/kg) every 25 to 30 days.
  • In cats, the typical dose is 10 mg to 12.5 mg once monthly as an intramuscular injection. 
  • Do not stop therapy!
  • Bloodworm including electrolytes should be monitored during therapy. 
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your dog or cat feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
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    Desoxycorticosterone (DOCP, Percorten-V®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Desoxycorticosterone for Dogs and Cats

  •  Desoxycorticosterone, also known as Percorten-V® and often referred to by the letters "DOCP", is an injectable drug used to treat Addison's disease in dogs and cats. DOCP is given with prednisolone. 
  • Addison's disease – more properly known as hypoadrenocorticism – is a deficiency of hormones (cortisol, aldosterone) normally produced by the adrenal glands. Consequences of this disorder can include extreme weakness, shock, vomiting, diarrhea, disturbances of blood potassium and sodium, abnormal heart rhythms and death.
  • Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs is an autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of the adrenal gland cortex (outer layers) and a deficiency of vital hormones.
  • One of the hormones produced by the adrenal glands and absent in Addison's disease is aldosterone. This hormone assists the kidney in retaining needed sodium and getting rid of excess potassium. Deficiency of the hormone increases sodium loss in the urine, reduces blood pressure and increases blood potassium. High blood potassium can be dangerous, leading to fatal cardiac arrhythmias.
  • Treatment of Addison's disease requires replacement of missing hormones. It is essential to replace aldosterone with a similar hormone. Desoxycorticosterone is an injectable replacement (hormone) belonging to a class of drugs known as mineralocorticoids steroids. Desoxycorticosterone is also called DOCP.
  • DOCP acts on the kidney to increase the absorption of sodium and facilitates excretion of potassium from the body.
  • The effects of DOCP last between 21 and 30 days following injection.
  • DOCP is not effective if kidney function is significantly impaired.
  • DOCP is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Desoxycorticosterone

  • This drug is registered for use in animals only.
  • Human formulations: None
  • Veterinary formulations: Percorten-V® (Novartis Animal Health)
  • Uses of Desoxycorticosterone for Dogs and Cats

  • Desoxycorticosterone is used to treat Addison's disease in dogs and cats. 
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, desoxycorticosterone can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Desoxycorticosterone (DOCP) should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • DOCP may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with desoxycorticosterone. Such drugs include furosemide, insulin, digoxin and amphotericin B.
  • DOCP use should be avoided in animals with heart failure or kidney failure.
  • Since DOCP is available only as an injection. Soreness and inflammation at the site of injection is a potential adverse effect.
  • Overdose of DOCP leads to increased thirst and urination, fluid retention and possible weakness.
  • How Desoxycorticosterone Is Supplied

  • Desoxycorticosterone is available as a 25 mg/ml injection.
  • Dosing Information of Desoxycorticosterone for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • Initially, desoxycorticosterone is dosed in dogs and cats at 1 mg per pound (2.2 mg/kg) every 25 to 30 days.
  • In cats, the typical dose is 10 mg to 12.5 mg once monthly as an intramuscular injection. 
  • Do not stop therapy!
  • Bloodworm including electrolytes should be monitored during therapy. 
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your dog or cat feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
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    Bromides (Potassium Bromide, Sodium Bromide) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Bromides for Canines and Felines

  • A seizure is a convulsion or physical manifestation of abnormal brain electrical activity. A partial seizure involves only a portion of the body whereas a generalized (grand mal) seizure involves the entire body. Many dogs are affected with chronic seizures and treatment is needed to control these events.
  • Bromide belongs to a general class of drugs known as anticonvulsants. Other related drugs in this class include diazepam and phenobarbital.
  • Typically, the chemical bromide is combined with either the potassium or sodium ion to create the drug potassium bromide or sodium bromide. Potassium bromide is commonly abbreviated as KBr. 
  • Bromide will depress the excitability of nerves within the brain and results in reducing seizures.
  • Bromide can be used alone or can be combined with another seizure control drug called phenobarbital to control seizures.
  • Bromide is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Bromides

  • This drug is not registered for use in humans or animals. It must be compounded by a pharmacist.
  • Human formulations: None
  • Veterinary formulations: None
  • Uses of Bromide for Dogs and Cats

  • Bromides are used to treat seizure disorders in dogs as either monotherapy (single drug) or combination therapy with other anticonvulsant drugs.
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, bromide can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Bromide should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Bromides should be used with caution in older animals and animals with kidney impairment.
  • Bromides can be used in cats but is generally not be given to cats. Bromides may cause eosinophilic bronchitis. 
  • Bromide may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with bromide. Such drugs include certain diuretics.
  • One of the most common side effects of bromide is sedation, which is typically transient but can last up to three weeks. Nausea, vomiting and lack of appetite are also common side effects.  
  • In cases of significant overdose, stumbling, tremors and profound sedation has been reported.
  • How Bromide Is Supplied

  • Bromide is concentrated at specific doses based on your veterinarian's prescription. The drug often must be compounded by special pharmacies.
  • Bromide is available in capsule or liquid forms.
  • Dosing Information of Bromides for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • Initially, bromide is started at 15 to 20 mg per pound (30 to 40 mg/kg) daily.
  • Increases in dose may be required to control seizures.
  • Bromides are often compounded in to capsules or liquids. Some veterinarians prefer the liquid formulation, as it allows for easier titration if more or less of the drug is required.
  • Dividing the daily dose to every 12 hours and mixing with food can minimize side effects such as nausea or vomiting. 
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
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    Melarsomine (Immiticide®) for Dogs

     

    Overview of Melarsomine for Dogs

    •  Melarsomine, also known by the brand name Immiticide®, is an injectable drug used to treat heartworm infection for dogs. It is often used in a 3 dose protocol and often used after treatment with doxycycline or minocycline. Melarsomine is NOT recommended for use in cats.
    • Canine heartworm disease is an important and all too common problem. While there are excellent and safe methods for preventing infection, regrettably, dogs still become infected. Heartworm infection is treated in several ways.
    • One part of treatment involves killing the adult parasite (adulticidal therapy).
    • Another part of treatment is killing any microscopic offspring (microfilaria) in the blood.
    • Finally, preventing further infection with a heartworm preventative is important.
    • Melarsomine is the drug of choice for the first stage and is effective for killing adult heartworms living in the arteries of the lungs.
    • Melarsomine is an arsenic-based drug. Although these drugs are known to kill adult heartworms, the exact method of the killing action is unknown.
    • Melarsomine administration does not result in arsenic poisoning.
    • Melarsomine is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.

    Brand Names and Other Names of Melarsomine

    • This drug is registered for use in animals only.
    • Human formulations: None
    • Veterinary formulations: Immiticide® (Merial)

    Uses of Melarsomine for Dogs

    • Melarsomine is used to treat heartworm infection in dogs. The precise method used (one or two stage) depends on the severity of the disease and the need for supportive care.
    • Melarsomine can only treat adult heartworms and has no effect on microfilaria.

    Precautions and Side Effects

    • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, melarsomine can cause side effects in some animals.
    • Melarsomine should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
    • Melarsomine should never be used in cats.
    • Care must be taken to avoid melarsomine administration in severe heartworm disease. Rapid kill of large amount of heartworms can lead to a serious and fatal syndrome.
    • Melarsomine may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with melarsomine.
    • Some adverse effects of melarsomine include skin and muscle irritation at the injection site, pain, swelling and reluctance to move.
    • Coughing, lethargy, lack of appetite, fever and vomiting have also been reported. Many of these symptoms are likely related to the killing of adult heartworms. As the worms die they obstruct arteries of the lung and create a lung tissue reaction. This situation often requires supportive treatment with the steroid drug prednisone.
    • There is a low margin of safety with melarsomine; overdose complications can occur if an incorrect dose is given.

    How Melarsomine Is Supplied

    • Melarsomine is available in 50 mg per vial bottles.

    Dosing Information of Melarsomine for Dogs

    • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
    • The dose of melarsomine is crucial. Correct calculations are imperative. The exact injection technique recommended by the manufacturer should be used.
    • Melarsomine is to be given by intramuscular injection only. It should never be given just under the skin or into a vein.
    • Many dogs require treatments to stabilize the disease prior to administration of melarsomine. This may include prednisone (steroid) treatment to control lung inflammation or treatments for heart failure.
    • The usual dose is 1 mg per pound (2.2 mg/kg) deep within the muscles over the spine (epiaxial muscles). This dose should be given twice within 24 hours.
    • In advanced cases of heartworm disease, a two-stage treatment is safer. Initially only one dose is given. At least one month later, a two-dose treatment is given.
    • Repeated doses are based on the severity of the heartworm disease and response to treatment.
    • Strict cage rest is recommended after Melarsomine treatment.

     

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    Azathioprine (Imuran®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Azathioprine for Dogs and Cats

  • Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive drug that is chemically related to some anti-cancer chemotherapy agents. Also known as Imuran®, is used to treat a number of autoimmune diseases in dogs.  It is sometimes used with caution in cats. Azathioprine is often used in combination with corticosteroids. 
  • Azathioprine is used to suppress cells involved in autoimmune diseases including those involving the skin, blood, or multiple body systems. An example of the latter is systemic lupus erythematosus (or "lupus").
  • Azathioprine suppresses the immune system by interfering with the metabolism of immune and antibody-producing cells (lymphocytes).
  • Azathioprine is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration but it is prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Azathioprine

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulation: Imuran® (Glaxo Wellcome) and various generic preparations
  • Veterinary formulation: None
  • Uses of Azathioprine for Dogs and Cats

  • Azathioprine is prescribed to treat a number of autoimmune diseases in dogs, including:
  • Hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells leading to anemia) in dogs
  • Thrombocytopenia (low blood platelets needed for normal blood clotting)
  • Arthritis when associated with autoimmune disease
  • Skin diseases (such as pemphigus)
  • Chronic liver inflammation (chronic, active hepatitis)
  • Immune system disorders of the stomach and intestine (inflammatory bowel diseases)
  • Certain kidney diseases (glomerulonephritis)
  • Myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease affecting the junction of nerves and muscles
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, azathioprine can cause side effects in some animals.
  • Azathioprine should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • Because azathioprine is a potent immunosuppressive drug, extreme caution should be exercised when prescribing and administering this drug.
  • This drug can suppress the immune system severely and reduce the production of needed blood cells.
  • Cats are particularly susceptible to the suppressive effects of azathioprine on blood cells. This drug should be used very cautiously and at low doses, if at all, in cats.
  • Azathioprine may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with azathioprine. Such drugs include certain muscle relaxants and allopurinol.
  • Symptoms of adverse effect include lethargy, fever, reluctance to move, and loss of appetite. Any of these signs should be reported to your veterinarian.
  • It is not unusual for animals to develop transient diarrhea or loose stools with oral azathioprine treatment. Often this is a mild side effect. If diarrhea persists for more than a few days after starting treatment with azathioprine, your veterinarian should be notified.
  • If animals vomit in association with azathioprine treatment, contact your veterinarian. It may be a sign of a drug-induced effect such as pancreatitis.
  • Approximately 10 percent of dogs and all cats may be extremely sensitive to azathioprine because they lack enzymes to metabolize the active drug. Therefore, animals receiving treatment should have a blood test periodically to check for numbers of blood cells.
  • Azathioprine is related to other anticancer agents and should be always kept out of reach of children and other pets in the household.
  • How Azathioprine Is Supplied

  • Azathioprine is available in 50 mg tablets.
  • Dosing Information of Azathioprine for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • The typical dose administered to dogs is 0.5 to 1.0 mg per pound (1 to 2 mg/kg) orally every day to every other day.
  • If administered to cats, the dose should be 0.15 mg per pound (0.3 mg/kg) every other day orally.
  • It typically takes several days or weeks before azathioprine produces its full therapeutic effect once treatment is initiated.
  • Azathioprine often is administered in combination with other drugs, most often corticosteroids (cortisone-like drugs) such as prednisone.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed by your veterinarian. Even if your pet feels better, the entire treatment plan should be completed to prevent relapse or prevent the development of resistance.
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    Paroxetine (Paxil®) for Dogs and Cats

     

    Overview of Paroxetine for Canines and Felines

  •  Paroxetine, also known by the brand name Paxil®, is a prescription drug used to treat aggression, anxiety disorders, compulsive disorders, and other behavioral disorders in cats and dogs. 
  • Behavioral disorders in dogs and cats are common reasons for veterinary visits. Behavioral problems are also a frequent reason for euthanasia of pets, especially when unacceptable or dangerous animal behavior is involved. 
  • Recently, veterinarians have begun placing increasing emphasis on animal training and behavior modification, and animal behavior specialists have adopted drugs used to modify human moods and behavior for animal use. Paroxetine is one of these drugs.
  • This drug increases serotonin levels in the brain. Serotonin is a chemical that facilitates transmission of "messages" between brain cells. Its effects are very similar to those of another serotonin enhancing drug, Prozac® (fluoxetine).
  • Paroxetine is a prescription drug and can only be obtained from a veterinarian or by prescription from a veterinarian.
  • This drug is not approved for use in animals by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) but may be prescribed legally by veterinarians as an extra-label drug.
  • Brand Names and Other Names of Paroxetine

  • This drug is registered for use in humans only.
  • Human formulations: Paxil® (SK-Beecham)
  • Veterinary formulations: None
  • Uses of Paroxetine for Dogs and Cats

  • In dogs, paroxetine is sometimes used to treat aggression, fear-based behaviors (such as storm and noise phobias), anxiety-based behaviors (such as separation anxiety), and compulsive disorders (such as acral lick dermatitis and compulsive tail-chasing).
  • In cats, paroxetine is used to treat aggression, excessive fearfulness, urine-marking, and compulsive behaviors (such as excessive grooming, tail-chasing and wool-sucking).
  • Precautions and Side Effects

  • While generally safe and effective when prescribed by a veterinarian, paroxetine may cause unacceptable side effects in some animals.
  • Paroxetine should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or allergy to the drug.
  • The drug should be used with caution in elderly patients, patients with blood or kidney disorders, and patients with a history of seizures.
  • The drug should be discontinued in any patient that develops seizures while receiving treatment. If your pet experiences seizures while getting paroxetine, contact your veterinarian immediately.
  • Lack of appetite, lethargy, tremor, and increased thirst are the most common side effects of paroxetine.
  • Some pets may develop dry or itchy skin, vomiting, or diarrhea.
  • Paroxetine may interact with other medications. Consult with your veterinarian to determine if other drugs your pet is receiving could interact with paroxetine. Such drugs include MAO inhibitors (Anipryl®), cimetidine, phenytoin, and L-tryptophan.
  • How Paroxetine is Supplied

  • Paroxetine is available as 20 mg and 30 mg tablets.
  • Dosing Information of Paroxetine for Dogs and Cats

  • Medication should never be administered without first consulting your veterinarian.
  • In dogs, the usual dose of Paroxetine is 0.5 to 1 mg per pound (1 to 2 mg/kg) orally every 24 hours.
  • In cats, the usual dose of Paroxetine is 0.25 to 0.75 mg per pound (0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg) orally every 24 hours.
  • The duration of administration depends on the condition being treated, response to the medication, and the development of any adverse effects. Be certain to complete the prescription unless specifically directed otherwise by your veterinarian.
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