Vomiting in Dogs

Dogs

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OVERVIEW


Updated: October 28, 2014

At one time or another your dog may have a bout of vomiting. Usually he'll have eaten something disagreeable, eaten too much or too fast, exercised too soon after eating or any number of non-serious conditions. Vomiting may be a sign of a very minor problem. Or it may be a sign of something very serious.

Vomiting (emesis) is the act of expelling contents from the stomach through the mouth. It's a reflex act, involving a triggering stimulus (such as inflammation of the stomach), the central nervous system and abdominal muscles that work together to expel the contents from the stomach. There are multiple causes of vomiting. An occasional, infrequent isolated episode of vomiting is usually normal.

Vomiting is a symptom that can be caused by disorders of the gastrointestinal system (stomach and/or intestines) or it can be secondary to a disease from a different system (such as from cancer, kidney failure, diabetes, or infectious diseases). This can make the diagnosis of the cause of the vomiting a challenge.

Vomiting can be defined as acute (sudden onset) or chronic (longer duration of one to two weeks). The severity or concurrence of other signs will determine the recommendation of specific diagnostic tests. Important considerations include monitoring the duration and frequency of the vomiting. If your pet vomits once then eats normally with no further vomiting, has a normal bowel movement and is acting playful, then the problem may resolve on its own. If the vomiting continues after your pet eats or if your pet acts lethargic, or doesn't want to eat, then medical attention is warranted.

What to Watch For

  • Dehydration
  • Lethargy
  • Diarrhea
  • Weight Loss
  • Blood in the vomit
  • Ineffective vomiting

    • X-ray showing a foreign body (FB) in the small intestine of a dog (arrows).

     

    Diagnosis of Vomiting in Dogs

    Optimal therapy of any serious or persistent medical condition depends on establishing the correct diagnosis. There are numerous potential causes of vomiting and before any treatment can be recommended, it is important to identify the underlying cause. Initial therapy should be aimed at the underlying cause. Tests may include:

  • Complete medical history and physical examination, including abdominal palpation. Medical history will most likely include questions regarding the following: exposure to trash; vaccination history; diet; appetite; general health; character of vomitus (frequency, progression, presence of blood duration of vomiting); weight loss; past medical problems; medication history and presence of other gastrointestinal signs (such as diarrhea).

  • Your veterinarian may recommend a number of laboratory tests. These can include a complete blood count (CBC), a serum biochemical panel, and a urinalysis.

  • Fecal examination (to determine presence of parasites or blood).

  • Plain radiography (X-rays) or contrast X-rays (X-rays performed with a contrast material such as barium or aqueous iodine), can help to determine the cause of the vomiting.

  • Ultrasonography is an imaging technique that allows visualization of abdominal structures by recording reflection (or echo's).

  • Endoscopy – may be useful to diagnosis or remove certain foreign bodies that are in the stomach. Endoscopy can also be used for examination of the stomach and a portion of the intestine (and potentially obtain biopsies of abnormal areas).

  • Laparotomy - This is an exploratory surgery that involves the looking into the abdomen for evaluation of abnormalities
  •  

    Treatment of Vomiting in Dogs

    Treatments for vomiting may include one or more of the following:

  • Eliminate predisposing cause (exposure to trash, change in diet, eating plants, etc).

  • An acute episode of vomiting in a playful pet, in the absence of other physical abnormalities, may be treated symptomatically without hospitalization (outpatient treatment). Outpatient treatment may consist of subcutaneous fluids, injectable antiemetics (drugs used to control nausea and vomiting) and a follow-up appointment if the symptoms are not resolved immediately.

  • Pets that have abdominal pain, diarrhea and act lethargic or have any other physical abnormality, may be treated with hospitalization. Hospital therapy may include intravenous fluid administration, 24-hour monitoring, and drug therapy. This is often combined with diagnostic testing to determine the cause of the vomiting.

  • Sick pets may require referral to an emergency or 24 hour hospital that offers around-the-clock care.
  • Home Care and Prevention

    Follow-up with your veterinarian for re-examinations of your pet as recommended and administer any veterinary prescribed medications. If your pet experiences inadequate response to prior measures, a further workup may be indicated to determine the underlying cause of the vomiting.

    Treatments of vomiting are dependent on the cause. Symptomatic therapy of an episode of vomiting includes withholding food and water for three to four hours. If your pet has not vomited by the end of this time, offer small amounts of water (a few tablespoons at a time). Continue to offer small amounts of water ever 20 minutes or so until your pet is hydrated.

    After the small increments of water are offered, gradually offer a bland diet. Small frequent feedings of a bland digestible diet such as: Hill's prescription diet i/d, Iams Recovery Diet, Provision EN or Waltham Low Fat, are usually recommended. Homemade diets can be made of boiled rice or potatoes (as the carbohydrate source) and lean hamburger, skinless chicken or low-fat cottage cheese (as the protein source).

    Return to regular dog food should be gradual over one to two days. If vomiting continues at any time or the onset of other symptoms are noted, call your veterinarian promptly.

    If your pet is not eating, acts lethargic, the vomiting continues or any other physical abnormalities mentioned above begins, it is important to see your veterinarian. Your pet needs your help and the professional care your veterinarian can provide. If your pet is having the clinical signs mentioned above expect your veterinarian to perform some diagnostic tests and make treatment recommendations. Recommendations will be dependent upon the severity and nature of the clinical signs.

    Prevention is aimed at minimizing your pet's exposure to trash (bones, food products), foreign material (socks, strings, etc) or toxins. Leash-walk your pet to minimize exposure to foreign material that may be located outside. Monitor your pet's appetite and general health, as well.

    INFORMATION IN-DEPTH


    Causes of acute vomiting may include:

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders

  • Bacterial infection of the GI tract
  • Diet-related causes (diet change, food intolerance, food allergy, dietary indiscretion)
  • Foreign bodies (bones, toys, clothes, string, plastic, hairballs, rocks)
  • Gastric dilatation-volvulus
  • Intestinal intussusception (prolapse of one part of the intestine into another)
  • Intestinal volvulus (torsion of a loop of intestine, causing obstruction with or without compromising the blood supply to the part by starangulation)
  • Intestinal parasites
  • Non-gastrointestinal disorders

  • Acute kidney failure
  • Acute liver failure or gall bladder inflammation
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Drugs (certain drugs can cause vomiting including digoxin, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, adriamycin, erythromycin and tetracycline)

  • Hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the blood)
  • Motion sickness
  • Neurological disorders (such as vestibular disease, meningitis, increased intracranial pressure or other central nervous system disorders)
  • Overeating
  • Pancreatitis
  • Peritonitis (inflammation of the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities)
  • Post-operative nausea
  • Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate [the gland in the male which surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra])
  • Pyometra (an accumulation of pus in the uterus)
  • Sepsis/systemic infection
  • Toxins or chemicals
  • Viral infections (such as parvovirus, corona virus, distemper)

    Causes of chronic vomiting may include:
  • Gastrointestinal disorders

  • Chronic colitis
  • Chronic gastritis (lymphocytic plasma, eosinophilic, granulomatous)
  • Diaphragmatic hernia
  • Diet related (food allergy or intolerance)
  • Foreign bodies
  • Gastric motility disorders
  • Gastric outflow obstruction (due to a variety of causes)
  • Gastrointestinal ulceration
  • Hiatal hernia (protrusion of a structure, often a portion of the stomach, through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm)
  • Hypertrophic gastropathy
  • Intestinal obstruction
  • Neoplasia (the formation of a tumor)
  • Parasites
  • Severe constipation
  • Nongastrointestinal disorders

  • Chronic pancreatitis
  • Heartworm infection
  • Hypoadrenocorticism (diminished hormone production from the cortex of the adrenal gland)
  • Liver failure
  • Neurological disorders (neoplasia, inflammatory diseases, etc)
  • Renal failure (kidney failure)
  • Toxicity (such as lead)
  • Vomiting may be caused by a number of disorders. A single episode of vomiting is seldom cause for concern but prolonged or excessive vomiting may be a sign of a serious underlying problem. Have your pet examined by a veterinarian if it is vomiting before he/she becomes seriously dehydrated or debilitated.

    Different diseases will be considered as potential causes of vomiting by your veterinarian depending on your pet's medical history and physical examination. For example, when vomiting is acutely noted in an unvaccinated 4-month-old puppy with bloody diarrhea, the first differential diagnosis would be parvoviral enteritis and tests for this virus may be performed. If the vomiting has been occurring for three months in an 8-year-old dog with a history of weight loss, then laboratory work and radiographs (X-rays) may be the diagnostic tests of choice. Since vomiting can be a symptom of many different diseases, numerous diagnostic tests may be needed to determine the cause of your pet's problem. The extent of the work-up should be discussed with your veterinarian.

    Optimal therapy of any serious or persistent medical condition depends on establishing the correct diagnosis. There are numerous potential causes of vomiting and before any treatment can be recommended, it is important to identify the underlying cause. Initial therapy should be aimed at the underlying cause.


    VETERINARY CARE IN-DEPTH

    Diagnosis In-depth

    Certain diagnostic tests must be performed to confirm the causes of vomiting. Your veterinarian may recommend a number of laboratory tests for your pet.

  • A complete blood count (CBC) may be needed to evaluate your pet for infections, inflammation, parasitic infection or anemia. A serum biochemical panel may reveal the cause of vomiting (such as diabetes, liver disease or kidney failure) or demonstrate complications of vomiting (such as abnormal blood potassium).

  • Other tests that may be recommended include: 1) a serum amylase and lipase – to evaluate for evidence of pancreatitis; 2) urinalysis – to evaluate kidney function and look for signs of infection; and/or 3) fecal examination to determine presence of parasites or blood.

  • Radiography – Plain radiography (X-rays) can help to determine if the following are present: some foreign bodies (string, rocks, bones, etc.); tumors; gastric dilatation; intussusception (where one piece of intestine prolapses into and becomes trapped in another); gastric or intestinal obstruction; and abnormalities of the kidney and liver. Contrast X-rays (X-rays performed after a contrast material such as barium or aqueous iodine has been ingested by the animal or fed via a stomach tube or given intravenously) can help in the diagnosis of some foreign bodies, show whether food empties from the stomach normally, and determine whether the urinary tract (kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra) are normal. Aqueous iodine is preferred over barium if perforation of the stomach or intestines is suspected due to the potentially irritating effects of barium when it leaks into the abdomen.

  • Ultrasonography – an imaging technique that allows visualization of abdominal structures by recording reflection (or echos). This is a non-invasive tool that can be used for evaluation of abdominal contents.

  • Endoscopy – may be useful to diagnosis or remove certain foreign bodies that are in the stomach or to perform an examination of the stomach and a portion of the intestine. It can also be used to obtain biopsies of abnormal areas. A specialist may perform this procedure for which general anesthesia is usually required. The benefit of this procedure is that it is less invasive than surgery. Basically a fiberoptic tube is inserted into the mouth and advanced through the esophagus and into the stomach and upper small intestine. A disadvantage of endoscopy over surgery is that endoscopy only allows visualization of a small portion of the gastrointestinal tract and only partial thickness biopsies of the bowel can be taken.

  • Laparotomy – an exploratory surgery that involves opening the abdomen to look for abnormalities such as foreign bodies, tumors, intestinal obstruction or to obtain biopsies of abnormal tissues. The disadvantage of this procedure is that it requires that an abdominal incision be made. The advantage of this procedure is that all of the abdominal organ contents can be visualized and it allows some abnormalities to be repaired (for example, removal of intestinal foreign bodies). It also allows full thickness biopsies of tissues to be taken for microscopic evaluation.

  •  

    Treatment In-depth

    There are numerous potential causes of vomiting; therefore, before any treatment can be recommended it is important to identify the underlying cause. The intensity of the treatment will be determined by your pet's condition. Treatment often includes withholding food and water while giving fluids and electrolytes intravenously and administering drugs for control of vomiting and/or gastrointestinal protectants.

    Potential symptomatic treatments may include:

  • Giving no food or water until vomiting has stopped for 12 to 24 hours. This is usually done in conjunction with fluid and electrolyte therapy. Water is then initiated after 12 to 24 hour period. Small increments of water are offered and gradually a bland diet is started. Small frequent feedings of a bland digestible diet such as Hill's prescription diet i/d, Iams Recovery Diet, Provision EN or Waltham Low Fat are usually recommended. Homemade diets can be made of boiled rice or potatoes (as the carbohydrate source) and lean hamburger, skinless chicken or low-fat cottage cheese (as the protein source). The return to regular dog food should be gradual over three to four days.

  • Fluid therapy is indicated if your pet is dehydrated or actively vomiting and/or having diarrhea. For severe cases, IV (intravenous) fluid therapy is important. Balanced electrolyte solution with potassium supplemented may be recommended. Occasionally, bicarbonate supplementation may be required (which will be determined by serum biochemistry lab testing). Dextrose may also be added to the IV fluids. Mild cases can be treated with subcutaneous fluid therapy where fluid is given under the skin. Subcutaneous fluids are slowly absorbed. Intavenous fluids are important for survival of animals that are seriously dehydrated or debilitated.

    Antiemetics are drugs that are used to control vomiting. Common drugs used include:

  • Metoclopramide (Reglan®)

  • Maropitant citrate (Cerenia®)

  • Chlorpromazine (Thorazine®)

  • Prochlorperazine (Compazine®)

  • Ondansetron (Zofran®)

    Common gastrointestinal protectants include:

  • Famotidine (Pepcid®)

  • Cimetidine (Tagamet®)

  • Ranitidine HCl (Zantac®)

  • Sucralfate (Carafate®)

    These drugs are given after vomiting is controlled.
  • Prognosis

    The prognosis for vomiting largely depends on the underlying cause of the vomiting.

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    About The Author

    debra-primovic Dr. Debra Primovic

    Debra A. Primovic, BSN, DVM, Editor-in-Chief, is a graduate of the Ohio State University School of Nursing and the OSU College of Veterinary Medicine. Following her veterinary medical training, Dr. Primovic practiced in general small animal practices as well as veterinary emergency practices. She was staff veterinarian at the Animal Emergency Clinic of St. Louis, Missouri, one of the busiest emergency/critical care practices in the United States as well as MedVet Columbus, winner of the AAHA Hospital of the year in 2014. She also spends time in general practice at the Granville Veterinary Clinic. Dr. Primovic divides her time among veterinary emergency and general practice, editing, writing, and updating articles for PetPlace.com, and editing and indexing for veterinary publications. She loves both dogs and cats but has had extraordinary cats in her life, all of which have died over the past couple years. Special cats in her life were Kali, Sammy, Pepper and Beanie.