How to Tell if Your Dog is Dehydrated and Tips on How to Help Them

Dehydration occurs when the total body water is less than normal. Usually it involves loss of both water and electrolytes, which are minerals such as sodium, chloride and potassium. During illness, dehydration may be caused by an inadequate fluid intake. Fever increases the loss of water. Dehydration is a common problem in dogs and can be the symptom of many different diseases and basically any reason a dog doesn’t drink or is loosing fluids.

When there is not enough body water, fluid shifts out of the body cells to compensate, leaving the cells deficient in necessary water. This leads to dehydration. The severity of the dehydration is based on the magnitude of these body water shifts.

Dehydration is caused by either a lack of food or water intake or an increase in water loss through illness or injury.

What to Watch For

Signs of dehydration include:

Diagnosis of Dehydration in Dogs

Physical examination findings can help determine if dehydration is present. A common but inaccurate way to diagnose dehydration is based on skin elasticity. When the skin along the back is gently lifted, it should immediately return to the normal position. In a dehydrated animal, the skin does not return to normal quickly. The speed of return to normal position can help determine the severity of the dehydration.

Blood tests such as a complete blood count and biochemistry profile are important to try to find the underlying cause of the dehydration but may not reveal if dehydration is present.

The most important tests are a packed cell volume and total blood protein test. These tests are done on a blood sample and can help reveal if dehydration is present.

If the packed cell volume and total protein are elevated, dehydration is present.

Determining the concentration of the urine can also help determine if the pet is dehydrated and if the kidneys are affected.

Treatment of Dehydration in Dogs

The treatment for dehydration is to supplement the body with fluids. It is often not possible for an ill pet to ingest sufficient water to correct dehydration. Fluids are typically administered as an injection. The most efficient method of rehydration is through intravenous fluids. This requires hospitalization as well as an intravenous catheter.

Fluid replacement is done slowly to allow the body to compensate and slowly replenish tissues starved of fluid.

Home Care and Prevention

There is no home care for dehydration. If you suspect that your pet is dehydrated, prompt veterinary care is recommended.

Some animals can be treated with subcutaneous fluids at home, after an initial diagnosis and treatment. Ask your veterinarian if this is an option and have him/her show you how to administer injectable fluids at home.

Make sure your dog eats and drinks normally. The best way to prevent dehydration is to have your pet examined and treated early if an illness occurs. For sick pets, preventing dehydration may be difficult but if promptly treated, can result in recovery.

In-depth Information on Dehydration in Dogs

Dehydration can be caused by numerous illnesses or abnormalities and can be divided into two main categories: reduced fluid intake or increased fluid losses.

Causes of Canine Dehydration

Reduced Fluid Intake

The body relies on a steady intake of fluid to maintain hydration. When the ingestion does not meet the body demands, dehydration occurs. If your pet is not eating or drinking adequately because of disease or illness, dehydration is likely to occur. Reduced fluid intake can also occur if there is either accidental or deliberate deprivation of food or water. If you leave your pet unattended for several days and he spills his water bowl, he may be without water for several days.

Increased Fluid Losses

In some diseases or illnesses, your pet may be able to consume enough fluid to meet body demands. The most common cause of this is vomiting and diarrhea or kidney disease. With vomiting and diarrhea, excess fluids are lost. In kidney disease, the kidneys are unable to conserve fluids and they excrete excess fluid in the urine. Other causes of increased fluid losses include excessive panting, fever, large wounds or burns that ooze fluid or severe prolonged drooling.

Diagnosis In-depth

There is no single test that can accurately determine the presence or severity of dehydration. The diagnosis is generally based on history, physical examination findings and laboratory tests.

The recent history is very important and can determine if dehydration is possible and may help determine the underlying cause. Be prepared to answer questions about:

Treatment In-depth

The treatment for dehydration is to rehydrate with fluids. Since the animal is unable to meet the fluid demands by consuming sufficient food or water, injectable fluids are used. The fluids may be given subcutaneously or intravenously. Intravenous (IV) fluids are preferred since the rehydration is hastened and can be more appropriately monitored.

Once your pet is diagnosed with dehydration, the amount of fluid needed must be determined. The volume of fluid that needs to be replaced is based on the percentage of dehydration and the animal’s body weight. A rough calculation can be made based on one of the following formulas:

Follow-up Care for Dogs with Dehydration

After rehydration, the underlying cause of the dehydration must be addressed. Additional testing as well as examinations may be required to find the underlying cause.

Make sure your pet eats and drinks normally. If dehydration is suspected, prompt veterinary assistance is essential to prevent further dehydration.